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益生菌的好处
添加时间:2017-07-14 14:20:02 浏览次数: 作者:未知
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  • When it comes to bugs1 like bacteria and parasites2, we've been trained to think that less is better. But there are some good guys in the microbial world — bugs that do the unglamorous work of keeping us regular and helping3 to relieve a range of disorders4 from diarrhea to irritable5 bowel6 syndrome7 (IBS). Now, a new study suggests that the same microbes may even help us stay slim.

    当谈到细菌和寄生虫的时候,我们习惯性的都认为越少越好。 实际上在微生物界中有一些好虫子的,它们做着枯燥无聊的工作来维持我们的身体正常运转,还能预防从腹泻到肠道紊乱综合症的病症。 现在新的研究发现这些微生物甚至帮助我们保持苗条。

    In the Proceedings8 of the National Academy of Science, researchers at the University of Arizona and the Mayo Clinic in Arizona report a very small study of nine individuals — three of normal weight, three who were morbidly9 obese10 and three who underwent gastric11 bypass surgery. The team found that each group harbored a different intestinal12 zoo of microbes, and that following their surgery, the gastric bypass patients' gut13 bugs ended up looking much more similar to those of the normal weight patients.

    在一项美国国家科学院亚利桑那州大学和马奥诊所的研究者们进行的小范围试验中,有9个被观测者,三个正常体重,三个肥胖症,还有三个要做胃旁路手术的病人。 研究团队发现不同组的人体肠道中的菌群是完全不同的。在手术后,那三个有胃病的人最后的肠道菌群变的和正常体重的病人相近了。

    While these results are only preliminary, they do point to an entirely14 new way that doctors and patients might be able to tackle the growing obesity15 epidemic16 in the U.S. "This study suggests that the differences in the organisms may play at least some role in why people lose the weight they do, " says Dr. John DiBaise, a gastroenterologist at Mayo Clinic and one of study's authors. "Ultimately, we may not only be able to manipulate the microbes of obese individuals to look like those of normal weight people, but we might also potentially be able to predict a person's susceptibility to obesity."

    虽然这些结论只是初级的,但它确实为医生和病人降低美国日益增长的肥胖症比率打开了一扇新的大门。作为这项研究的主要研究员,马奥诊所的胃肠病学家约翰.迪拜瑟医生说:“这项研究说明这些微生物肯定在在人们的减肥过程中扮演了什么角色。如果弄得好,我们可能不仅让胖子们的肠道菌群和正常人的一样,还可以预测一个人会不会变胖。”

    What might be happening, suspects DiBaise, is that each person's ability to extract energy and store fat from food changes depending on which combination of bugs are living in the gut. Those who are morbidly obese, it seems, tend to nurture17 bugs that promote the fat storage process, which might be a factor in their excessive weight gain. The bypass patients appeared to follow a similar pattern but in the opposite direction, eating less first and then developing bugs appropriate to that diet. It's not clear how the physical act of reducing food intake18 drives that change, nor how long-lasting the possible slimming effects of the new bug population will be.

    拜瑟医生怀疑,每个人吸收营养、存储脂肪的能力和自己的肠道菌群的种类组合息息相关。胖子们的似乎在肠道内饲养了一群会提高脂肪存储的微生物才造成了他们的肥胖。而那些胃旁路患者也走了相同的路,不过方向刚好相反,吃的少,也就养成了适合节食的菌群。对于运动和减少食物摄入如何影响这种变化和这些减肥效果能减肥的新菌群能坚持多久还不是很清楚。

    But none of this means that downing the latest probiotic yogurts, which contain certain strains of good gut bacteria, should be the next weight loss craze. For one, says DiBaise, the strains that were dominant19 in the normal weight people are not the same as those promoted in the popular probiotic yogurts. Second, there is no evidence that probiotic products can do anything about weight loss; the latest scientific studies have shown only that probiotics can relieve antibiotic-related diarrhea, as well as alleviating20 IBS and aiding regularity21. "It is interesting to look at microbial flora22, " says Lynne McFarland, an epidemiologist at the Puget Sound Veterans Administration Medical Center, who was not affiliated23 with the study. "But I would not run out and eat a lot of yogurt because of this."

    但是这些结果不意味着喝含有一些良性菌的最新酸牛乳会成为下一个减肥风潮。拜瑟医生说,首先,人体肠道中的菌群和算牛乳的菌群是不一样的。其次,这些产品和能不能减肥基本没啥关系。最新的研究也只是发现这些饮料可以缓解抗生素相关的腹泻,减轻肠道综合症和稳定肠道。没有参与本研究的皮热老兵健康管理医疗中心的流行病学家林恩.马克弗兰说:“观察微生物菌从是很有意思的,那我也不能因此跑出去吃一大堆酸乳酪啊!”

    At least, not yet. More studies are needed to follow the same people as they lose weight through diet and exercise, to see if the composition of their gut flora changes — as it did with the gastric bypass patients. What's more, notwithstanding the seemingly cause-and-effect link between gut flora and weight, that relationship can be deceiving; a third factor entirely may be causing both — a diet of highly processed foods, for instance, suggests Dr. David Katz, director of the Yale Prevention Research Center. What's more, says Katz: "Regardless of the variation of gut flora in the population, the entire population is getting heavy. So probiotics might tweak one's personal vulnerability to obesity, but they would not much move the big dial [on the obesity epidemic], " he says. Still, as anyone fighting the numbers on the scale knows, every little bit helps — even something a little as a bacterium24.

    至少,现在还不行。还需要做更多的试验。观察同一些人在节食和锻炼后他们的肠道菌群组合变化是否和那些胃旁路手术的病人的一样。 还有,尽管肠道菌群和减肥之间看似有因果关系,但这种关系也许具有欺骗性。耶鲁预防研究中心的大卫.卡茨说,可能有第三种因素同时导致了前二者,比如一份对都是高杀菌处理食物的食谱。他还说,“无视人们肠道菌群的种类变化,人们还是在变重,就算它们能减弱人对肥胖趋势,还是改变不了大趋势。”但那些和秤上表针战斗的胖子们还是要抓紧最后的稻草-哪怕这稻草只有细菌那么小。

     12级    英语科普 


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    1 bugs [bʌgz] e3255bae220613022d67e26d2e4fa689   第7级
    adj.疯狂的,发疯的n.窃听器( bug的名词复数 );病菌;虫子;[计算机](制作软件程序所产生的意料不到的)错误
    参考例句:
    • All programs have bugs and need endless refinement. 所有的程序都有漏洞,都需要不断改进。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    • The sacks of rice were swarming with bugs. 一袋袋的米里长满了虫子。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    2 parasites ['pærəsaɪts] a8076647ef34cfbbf9d3cb418df78a08   第7级
    寄生物( parasite的名词复数 ); 靠他人为生的人; 诸虫
    参考例句:
    • These symptoms may be referable to virus infection rather than parasites. 这些症状也许是由病毒感染引起的,而与寄生虫无关。
    • Kangaroos harbor a vast range of parasites. 袋鼠身上有各种各样的寄生虫。
    3 helping [ˈhelpɪŋ] 2rGzDc   第7级
    n.食物的一份&adj.帮助人的,辅助的
    参考例句:
    • The poor children regularly pony up for a second helping of my hamburger. 那些可怜的孩子们总是要求我把我的汉堡包再给他们一份。
    • By doing this, they may at times be helping to restore competition. 这样一来,他们在某些时候,有助于竞争的加强。
    4 disorders [disˈɔ:dəz] 6e49dcafe3638183c823d3aa5b12b010   第7级
    n.混乱( disorder的名词复数 );凌乱;骚乱;(身心、机能)失调
    参考例句:
    • Reports of anorexia and other eating disorders are on the increase. 据报告,厌食症和其他饮食方面的功能紊乱发生率正在不断增长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    • The announcement led to violent civil disorders. 这项宣布引起剧烈的骚乱。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    5 irritable [ˈɪrɪtəbl] LRuzn   第9级
    adj.急躁的;过敏的;易怒的
    参考例句:
    • He gets irritable when he's got toothache. 他牙一疼就很容易发脾气。
    • Our teacher is an irritable old lady. She gets angry easily. 我们的老师是位脾气急躁的老太太。她很容易生气。
    6 bowel [ˈbaʊəl] Bszzy   第7级
    n.肠(尤指人肠);内部,深处
    参考例句:
    • Irritable bowel syndrome seems to affect more women than men. 女性比男性更易患肠易激综合征。
    • Have you had a bowel movement today? 你今天有排便吗?
    7 syndrome [ˈsɪndrəʊm] uqBwu   第7级
    n.综合病症;并存特性
    参考例句:
    • The Institute says that an unidentified virus is to blame for the syndrome. 该研究所表示,引起这种综合症的是一种尚未确认的病毒。
    • Results indicated that 11 fetuses had Down syndrome. 结果表明有11个胎儿患有唐氏综合征。
    8 proceedings [prə'si:diŋz] Wk2zvX   第7级
    n.进程,过程,议程;诉讼(程序);公报
    参考例句:
    • He was released on bail pending committal proceedings. 他交保获释正在候审。
    • to initiate legal proceedings against sb 对某人提起诉讼
    9 morbidly ['mɔ:bɪdlɪ] 0a1798ce947f18fc75a423bf03dcbdba   第8级
    adv.病态地
    参考例句:
    • As a result, the mice became morbidly obese and diabetic. 结果,老鼠呈现为病态肥胖和糖尿病。 来自互联网
    • He was morbidly fascinated by dead bodies. 他对尸体着魔到近乎病态的程度。 来自互联网
    10 obese [əʊˈbi:s] uvIya   第8级
    adj.过度肥胖的,肥大的
    参考例句:
    • The old man is really obese, it can't be healthy. 那位老人确实过于肥胖了,不能算是健康。
    • Being obese and lazy is dangerous to health. 又胖又懒危害健康。
    11 gastric [ˈgæstrɪk] MhnxW   第11级
    adj.胃的
    参考例句:
    • Miners are a high risk group for certain types of gastric cancer. 矿工是极易患某几种胃癌的高风险人群。
    • That was how I got my gastric trouble. 我的胃病就是这么得的。
    12 intestinal [ˌɪntes'taɪnl] DbHzX   第9级
    adj.肠的;肠壁;肠道细菌
    参考例句:
    • A few other conditions are in high intestinal obstruction. 其它少数情况是高位肠梗阻。 来自辞典例句
    • This complication has occasionally occurred following the use of intestinal antiseptics. 这种并发症偶而发生在使用肠道抗菌剂上。 来自辞典例句
    13 gut [gʌt] MezzP   第7级
    n.[pl.]胆量;内脏;adj.本能的;vt.取出内脏
    参考例句:
    • It is not always necessary to gut the fish prior to freezing. 冷冻鱼之前并不总是需要先把内脏掏空。
    • My immediate gut feeling was to refuse. 我本能的直接反应是拒绝。
    14 entirely [ɪnˈtaɪəli] entirely   第9级
    ad.全部地,完整地;完全地,彻底地
    参考例句:
    • The fire was entirely caused by their neglect of duty. 那场火灾完全是由于他们失职而引起的。
    • His life was entirely given up to the educational work. 他的一生统统献给了教育工作。
    15 obesity [əʊ'bi:sətɪ] Dv1ya   第8级
    n.肥胖,肥大
    参考例句:
    • One effect of overeating may be obesity. 吃得过多能导致肥胖。
    • Sugar and fat can more easily lead to obesity than some other foods. 糖和脂肪比其他食物更容易导致肥胖。
    16 epidemic [ˌepɪˈdemɪk] 5iTzz   第7级
    n.流行病;盛行;adj.流行性的,流传极广的
    参考例句:
    • That kind of epidemic disease has long been stamped out. 那种传染病早已绝迹。
    • The authorities tried to localise the epidemic. 当局试图把流行病限制在局部范围。
    17 nurture [ˈnɜ:tʃə(r)] K5sz3   第7级
    n.养育,照顾,教育;滋养,营养品;vt.养育,给与营养物,教养,扶持
    参考例句:
    • The tree grows well in his nurture. 在他的培育下这棵树长得很好。
    • The two sisters had received very different nurture. 这俩个姊妹接受过极不同的教育。
    18 intake [ˈɪnteɪk] 44cyQ   第7级
    n.吸入,纳入;进气口,入口
    参考例句:
    • Reduce your salt intake. 减少盐的摄入量。
    • There was a horrified intake of breath from every child. 所有的孩子都害怕地倒抽了一口凉气。
    19 dominant [ˈdɒmɪnənt] usAxG   第7级
    adj.支配的,统治的;占优势的;显性的;n.主因,要素,主要的人(或物);显性基因
    参考例句:
    • The British were formerly dominant in India. 英国人从前统治印度。
    • She was a dominant figure in the French film industry. 她在法国电影界是个举足轻重的人物。
    20 alleviating [əˈli:vieitɪŋ] dc7b7d28594f8dd2e6389293cd401ede   第7级
    减轻,缓解,缓和( alleviate的现在分词 )
    参考例句:
    • If it's alleviating pain,who knows what else it's doing? 如果它减轻了疼痛,天知道还影响什么?
    • Measuring poverty is not the same as alleviating it, of course. 当然,衡量贫困和减轻贫困是截然不同的。
    21 regularity [ˌregjuˈlærəti] sVCxx   第7级
    n.规律性,规则性;匀称,整齐
    参考例句:
    • The idea is to maintain the regularity of the heartbeat. 问题就是要维持心跳的规律性。
    • He exercised with a regularity that amazed us. 他锻炼的规律程度令我们非常惊讶。
    22 flora [ˈflɔ:rə] 4j7x1   第9级
    n.(某一地区的)植物群
    参考例句:
    • The subtropical island has a remarkably rich native flora. 这个亚热带岛屿有相当丰富的乡土植物种类。
    • All flora need water and light. 一切草木都需要水和阳光。
    23 affiliated [əˈfɪlieɪtɪd] 78057fb733c9c93ffbdc5f0ed15ef458   第7级
    adj. 附属的, 有关连的
    参考例句:
    • The hospital is affiliated with the local university. 这家医院附属于当地大学。
    • All affiliated members can vote. 所有隶属成员都有投票权。
    24 bacterium [bæk'tɪərɪəm] BN7zE   第7级
    n.(pl.bacteria )细菌
    参考例句:
    • The bacterium possibly goes in the human body by the mouth. 细菌可能通过口进入人体。
    • A bacterium is identified as the cause for his duodenal ulcer. 一种细菌被断定为造成他十二指肠溃疡的根源。

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