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添加时间:2018-01-30 20:54:54 浏览次数: 作者:未知
  • Endurance athletes such as runners and cyclists are used to hearing injunctions to drink enough water. While staying hydrated is important, there are times when you can have too much water.


    Last summer, for example, I began experiencing unusual muscle cramping1 in my hands and legs long after I finished a run, even the next day. Following the usual advice, I increased my water intake2 and ate bananas, which are full of potassium. That did not fix the problem. I then heard Jordan Metzl, a sports medicine specialist at the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York, describe how he had nearly crashed during his first Ironman race. It was a hot day, Dr Metzl recalled, and he was saved by a bearded bystander who was handing out raw salt.

    比如,去年夏天,我开始在跑完步很长时间后(乃至第二天)出现手部和腿部肌肉痉挛。我遵循一般的建议增加了水分摄入,吃富含钾的香蕉。然而问题没有解决。之后我听了纽约特殊外科医院(Hospital for Special Surgery)运动医学专家约尔丹•梅茨尔博士(Jordan Metzl)讲述他在第一次参加铁人三项赛时差点晕倒的事情。梅茨尔回忆,那天天气炎热,一个蓄着胡须、正在分发粗盐的旁观者救了他。

    If you follow medical news, you have probably heard the campaigns in the UK and the US warning about eating too much salt. It is true that there is often a lot of salt added to prepared food, and sodium3 can raise your blood pressure, which can lead to a heart attack.


    But cyclists and runners face an entirely4 different problem — too little salt, says Dr Metzl, who has run 30 marathons and is the author of a medical guide for athletes calledRunning Strong. When it is hot and humid, most people tend to sweat a lot during exercise. Very fit athletes actually sweat more than other people, which sounds counterintuitive, but it helps cool them down.

    但梅茨尔表示,自行车运动员和跑步运动员面临着截然不同的问题——盐分摄入太少。梅茨尔参加过30次马拉松比赛,著有为运动员撰写的医学参考书《跑步者健康指南》(Running Strong)。天气炎热潮湿的时候,大多数人会在锻炼中大量出汗。身体非常健康的运动员实际上会比其他人出汗更多,这听起来似乎有悖直觉,但这其实能够帮助运动员降低体温。

    There is also a subgroup of athletes whom Dr Metzl calls “salty sweaters”, who not only sweat more than most during exercise but also sweat much more salt. I know because I am one and my sweat is so salty it sometimes irritates my skin.

    在运动员中,有一类人被梅茨尔称为“多盐流汗者”(salty sweaters),这类人在锻炼中不仅会比大多数人出更多的汗,而且他们的汗液中含盐量也大得多。对此我有亲身体会,我的汗液中含盐量很大,以至于有时候会刺痛我的皮肤。

    A natural reaction when you sweat is to drink more water, especially during races when there are water tables by the roadside. But if you are taking in water and not electrolytes, which include sodium, magnesium5 and potassium, you are making the problem worse. The water dilutes6 the salt in your blood, which has been reduced by your sweat.


    Too little sodium in the blood can cause a condition known as hyponatraemia, which was only identified in 1985. Early symptoms of hyponatraemia are cramps7 of the small muscles in your hands and feet, like I had, followed by leg cramps. If the problem continues to worsen, you can become mentally disoriented and even, in extreme cases, die.


    The British Journal of Sports Medicine looked at the problem and urged endurance athletes to ensure they get enough salt during exercise, but also warned that “electrolyte replacement8 will slow but not prevent the development of hyponatraemia if fluid intake is in gross excess of sweating rate”. In other words, do not drink too much.

    英国运动医学期刊》(British Journal of Sports Medicine)研究了这个问题,并敦促耐力运动员确保他们在训练时摄入足够的盐分,但这份期刊还警告称,“如果液体摄入总量超过出汗量,补充电解质只能减缓、但无法阻止低钠血症的形成”。换句话说,不要喝太多水。

    Unfortunately, many of the commercial brands of electrolyte-laden sports drinks are loaded with sugar, which is counterproductive if you are running to stay in shape. Luckily there are electrolyte tablets like High5 Zero and Nuun available that contain sodium but no sugar. Take them well before you start your endurance event and after as well.

    遗憾的是,很多商业品牌的电解质运动饮料都含有大量的糖,如果你跑步是为了保持身材,喝这种饮料会适得其反。幸运的是,现在有High5 Zero、Nuun这样含钠但不含糖的电解质片剂。你要在开始耐力运动之前和之后服用这类片剂。

    Some people may worry about raising their blood pressure by taking electrolytes; indeed, people with a heart condition should consult their doctor before taking them. But Dr Metzl says that for most endurance athletes, having too little salt in the blood poses a far greater risk than having slightly higher blood pressure for a day or two.


     8级    英文科普 
     单词标签: cramping  intake  sodium  entirely  magnesium  dilutes  cramps  replacement 


    1 cramping ['kræmpɪŋ] 611b7a8bb08c8677d8a4f498dff937bb   第10级
    • The bleeding may keep my left hand from cramping. 淌血会叫我的左手不抽筋。
    • This loss of sodium can cause dehydration and cramping. 钠流失会造成脱水和抽筋。
    2 intake [ˈɪnteɪk] 44cyQ   第7级
    • Reduce your salt intake. 减少盐的摄入量。
    • There was a horrified intake of breath from every child. 所有的孩子都害怕地倒抽了一口凉气。
    3 sodium [ˈsəʊdiəm] Hrpyc   第8级
    • Out over the town the sodium lights were lit. 在外面,全城的钠光灯都亮了。
    • Common salt is a compound of sodium and chlorine. 食盐是钠和氯的复合物。
    4 entirely [ɪnˈtaɪəli] entirely   第9级
    • The fire was entirely caused by their neglect of duty. 那场火灾完全是由于他们失职而引起的。
    • His life was entirely given up to the educational work. 他的一生统统献给了教育工作。
    5 magnesium [mægˈni:ziəm] bRiz8   第9级
    • Magnesium is the nutrient element in plant growth. 镁是植物生长的营养要素。
    • The water contains high amounts of magnesium. 这水含有大量的镁。
    6 dilutes [daiˈlju:ts] c70603482dcf2181edd76243deabd652   第7级
    稀释,冲淡( dilute的第三人称单数 ); 削弱,使降低效果
    • On the plus side, wind dilutes and scatters air pollutants, and carries pollen. 从好处来说,风能稀释和驱散空气中的污染物质,传播花粉。
    • Ubiquity might not be toxic to authenticity, but it certainly dilutes it. 普遍性或许不至于毒害原真性,但确实会削弱它。
    7 cramps [kræmps] cramps   第10级
    n. 抽筋, 腹部绞痛, 铁箍 adj. 狭窄的, 难解的 v. 使...抽筋, 以铁箍扣紧, 束缚
    • If he cramps again let the line cut him off. 要是它再抽筋,就让这钓索把它勒断吧。
    • "I have no cramps." he said. “我没抽筋,"他说。
    8 replacement [rɪˈpleɪsmənt] UVxxM   第7级
    • We are hard put to find a replacement for our assistant. 我们很难找到一个人来代替我们的助手。
    • They put all the students through the replacement examination. 他们让所有的学生参加分班考试。

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