轻松背单词新浪微博 轻松背单词腾讯微博
当前位置:首页 -> 10级英语阅读 - > 如何重塑全球一体化
添加时间:2016-04-14 20:38:10 浏览次数: 作者:未知
  • Since the end of the second world war, a broad consensus1 in support of global economic integration2 as a force for peace and prosperity has been a pillar of the international order. From global trade agreements to the EU project; from the Bretton Woods institutions to the removal of pervasive3 capital controls; from ex-panded foreign direct investment to increased flows of peoples across borders, the overall direction has been clear. Driven by domestic economic progress, by technologies such as containerised shipping4 and the internet that promote integration, and by legislative5 changes within and between nations, the world has grown smaller and more closely connected.


    This has proved more successful than could reasonably have been hoped. We have not seen a war between leading powers. Global living standards have risen faster than at any point in history. And material progress has coincided with even more rapid progress in combating hunger, empowering women, promoting literacy and extending life. A world that will have more smartphones than adults within a few years is a world in which more is possible for more people than ever before.


    Yet a revolt against global integration is under way in the west. The four leading candidates for president of the US — Hillary Clinton, Bernie Sanders, Donald Trump7 and Ted6 Cruz — all oppose the principal free-trade initiative of this period: the Trans-Pacific Partnership8. Proposals by Mr Trump, the Republican frontrunner, to wall off Mexico, abrogate9 trade agreements and persecute10 Muslims are far more popular than he is. The movement for a British exit from the EU commands substantial support. Under pressure from an influx11 of refugees, Europe’s commitment to open borders appears to be crumbling12. In large part because of political constraints13, the growth of the international financial institutions has not kept pace with the growth of the global economy.

    然而,西方却出现了反对全球一体化的趋势。美国总统竞选中的四名主要参选人——希拉里•克林顿(Hillary Clinton)、伯尼•桑德斯(Bernie Sanders)、唐纳德•特朗普(Donald Trump)和特德•克鲁兹(Ted Cruz)——都反对这段时期以来最主要的自由贸易倡议——《跨太平洋伙伴关系协定》(Trans-Pacific Partnership, TPP)。共和党内最有可能成为候选人的特朗普提议用墙把墨西哥隔开、废除贸易协定和迫害穆斯林,这些点子比他本人要受欢迎得多。英国的脱欧运动得到了大力支持。在大量难民涌入的压力下,欧洲开放边界的承诺似乎就要化为泡影。主要由于政治因素的制约,国际金融机构的发展跟不上全球经济增长的步伐。

    Certainly a substantial part of what is behind the resistance is lack of knowledge. No one thanks global trade for the fact that their pay cheque buys twice as much in clothes, toys and other goods as it otherwise would. Those who succeed as exporters tend to credit their own prowess, not international agreements. So there is certainly a case for our leaders and business communities to educate people about the benefits of global integration. But at this late date, with the trends moving the wrong way, it is hard to be optimistic about such efforts.


    The core of the revolt against global integration, though, is not ignorance. It is a sense, not wholly unwarranted, that it is a project carried out by elites14 for elites with little consideration for the interests of ordinary people — who see the globalisation agenda as being set by big companies playing off one country against another. They read the revelations in the Panama Papers and conclude that globalisation offers a fortunate few the opportunities to avoid taxes and regulations that are not available to the rest. And they see the disintegration15 that accompanies global integration, as communities suffer when big employers lose to foreign competitors.


    What will happen next — and what should happen? Elites can continue pursuing and defending integration, hoping to win sufficient popular support — but, on the evidence of the US presidential campaign and the Brexit debate, this strategy may have run its course. This is likely to result in a hiatus in new global integration and efforts to preserve what is in place while relying on technology and growth in the developing world to drive further integration.


    The precedents16, notably17 the period between the first and second world wars, are hardly encouraging about unmanaged globalisation succeeding with neither a strong underwriter of the system nor strong global institutions.


    Much more promising18 is this idea: the promotion19 of global integration can become a bottom-up rather than a top-down project. The emphasis can shift from promoting integration to managing its consequences.


    This would mean a shift from international trade agreements to international harmonisation agreements, where issues such as labour rights and environmental protection would take precedence over issues related to empowering foreign producers. It would also mean devoting as much political capital to the trillions that escape tax or evade20 regulation through cross-border capital flows as we now devote to trade agreements. And it would mean an emphasis on the challenges of middle-class parents everywhere who doubt, but still hope desperately21, that their kids can have better lives than they did.

    这意味着把注意力从国际贸易协定,转向国际和谐协议(harmonisation agreements),在后一种协议中,劳工权利、环境保护等问题的重要性要超过与授权给国外生产商相关的问题。这也意味着,对于借助跨境资本流动来逃避纳税或绕过监管的巨量资金,我们要投入足够多的政治资本来应对,不能亚于我们目前投向贸易协定的政治资本。这将意味着,要把重点放在世界各地中产阶级父母所面对的挑战上,他们怀疑——但仍非常希望——他们的孩子可以过上比他们更好的生活。

     10级    英语新闻 


    1 consensus [kənˈsensəs] epMzA   第7级
    • Can we reach a consensus on this issue? 我们能在这个问题上取得一致意见吗?
    • What is the consensus of opinion at the afternoon meeting? 下午会议上一致的意见是什么?
    2 integration [ˌɪntɪˈgreɪʃn] G5Pxk   第9级
    • We are working to bring about closer political integration in the EU. 我们正在努力实现欧盟內部更加紧密的政治一体化。
    • This was the greatest event in the annals of European integration. 这是欧洲统一史上最重大的事件。
    3 pervasive [pəˈveɪsɪv] T3zzH   第10级
    • It is the most pervasive compound on earth. 它是地球上最普遍的化合物。
    • The adverse health effects of car exhaust are pervasive and difficult to measure. 汽车尾气对人类健康所构成的有害影响是普遍的,并且难以估算。
    4 shipping [ˈʃɪpɪŋ] WESyg   第8级
    • We struck a bargain with an American shipping firm. 我们和一家美国船运公司谈成了一笔生意。
    • There's a shipping charge of £5 added to the price. 价格之外另加五英镑运输费。
    5 legislative [ˈledʒɪslətɪv] K9hzG   第8级
    • Congress is the legislative branch of the U. S. government. 国会是美国政府的立法部门。
    • Today's hearing was just the first step in the legislative process. 今天的听证会只是展开立法程序的第一步。
    6 ted [ted] 9gazhs   第11级
    • He tedded the grains on a sunny noon. 天气晴朗的中午他翻晒了谷物。
    • She often teds the corn when it's sunny. 天好的时候她就翻晒玉米。
    7 trump [trʌmp] LU1zK   第10级
    • He was never able to trump up the courage to have a showdown. 他始终鼓不起勇气摊牌。
    • The coach saved his star player for a trump card. 教练保留他的明星选手,作为他的王牌。
    8 partnership [ˈpɑ:tnəʃɪp] NmfzPy   第8级
    • The company has gone into partnership with Swiss Bank Corporation. 这家公司已经和瑞士银行公司建立合作关系。
    • Martin has taken him into general partnership in his company. 马丁已让他成为公司的普通合伙人。
    9 abrogate [ˈæbrəgeɪt] yytz2   第10级
    • When can we abrogate the national boundaries all over the world? 什么时候可以在全球取消国界?
    • A government may abrogate any unfair treaties. 政府可以取消任何不公平的条约。
    10 persecute [ˈpɜ:sɪkju:t] gAwyA   第7级
    • They persecute those who do not conform to their ideas. 他们迫害那些不信奉他们思想的人。
    • Hitler's undisguised effort to persecute the Jews met with worldwide condemnation. 希特勒对犹太人的露骨迫害行为遭到世界人民的谴责。
    11 influx [ˈɪnflʌks] c7lxL   第9级
    • The country simply cannot absorb this influx of refugees. 这个国家实在不能接纳这么多涌入的难民。
    • Textile workers favoured protection because they feared an influx of cheap cloth. 纺织工人拥护贸易保护措施,因为他们担心涌入廉价纺织品。
    12 crumbling ['krʌmbliŋ] Pyaxy   第8级
    • an old house with crumbling plaster and a leaking roof 一所灰泥剥落、屋顶漏水的老房子
    • The boat was tied up alongside a crumbling limestone jetty. 这条船停泊在一个摇摇欲坠的石灰岩码头边。
    13 constraints [kən'streɪnt] d178923285d63e9968956a0a4758267e   第7级
    强制( constraint的名词复数 ); 限制; 约束
    • Data and constraints can easily be changed to test theories. 信息库中的数据和限制条件可以轻易地改变以检验假设。 来自英汉非文学 - 科学史
    • What are the constraints that each of these imply for any design? 这每种产品的要求和约束对于设计意味着什么? 来自About Face 3交互设计精髓
    14 elites [eiˈli:ts] e3dbb5fd6596e7194920c56f4830b949   第7级
    精华( elite的名词复数 ); 精锐; 上层集团; (统称)掌权人物
    • The elites are by their nature a factor contributing to underdevelopment. 这些上层人物天生是助长欠发达的因素。
    • Elites always detest gifted and nimble outsiders. 社会名流对天赋聪明、多才多艺的局外人一向嫌恶。
    15 disintegration [dɪsˌɪntɪ'ɡreɪʃn] TtJxi   第10级
    • This defeat led to the disintegration of the empire. 这次战败道致了帝国的瓦解。
    • The incident has hastened the disintegration of the club. 这一事件加速了该俱乐部的解体。
    16 precedents [p'resɪdənts] 822d1685d50ee9bc7c3ee15a208b4a7e   第7级
    引用单元; 范例( precedent的名词复数 ); 先前出现的事例; 前例; 先例
    • There is no lack of precedents in this connection. 不乏先例。
    • He copied after bad precedents. 他仿效恶例。
    17 notably [ˈnəʊtəbli] 1HEx9   第8级
    • Many students were absent, notably the monitor. 许多学生缺席,特别是连班长也没来。
    • A notably short, silver-haired man, he plays basketball with his staff several times a week. 他个子明显较为矮小,一头银发,每周都会和他的员工一起打几次篮球。
    18 promising [ˈprɒmɪsɪŋ] BkQzsk   第7级
    • The results of the experiments are very promising. 实验的结果充满了希望。
    • We're trying to bring along one or two promising young swimmers. 我们正设法培养出一两名有前途的年轻游泳选手。
    19 promotion [prəˈməʊʃn] eRLxn   第7级
    • The teacher conferred with the principal about Dick's promotion. 教师与校长商谈了迪克的升级问题。
    • The clerk was given a promotion and an increase in salary. 那个职员升了级,加了薪。
    20 evade [ɪˈveɪd] evade   第7级
    • He tried to evade the embarrassing question. 他企图回避这令人难堪的问题。
    • You are in charge of the job. How could you evade the issue? 你是负责人,你怎么能对这个问题不置可否?
    21 desperately ['despərətlɪ] cu7znp   第8级
    • He was desperately seeking a way to see her again. 他正拼命想办法再见她一面。
    • He longed desperately to be back at home. 他非常渴望回家。

    文章评论 共有评论 0查看全部