In the Middle Ages, the Ottoman Empire repeatedly tried to expand into Central Europe. In early 1683, the Ottoman Turks invaded Austria, and on 14 July reached Vienna. Pope Innocent XI sent out a call for a "Holy League" of soldiers in defence of the city.
The Pope's call was answered by John Sobieski, king of Poland, who was put in charge of a combined force of 70000 soldiers. Because of Sobieski's military brilliance1, they defeated an army twice their size.
In announcing his victory to the Pope, the king slightly changed Julius Caesar's famous words by saying simply, "I came, I saw, God conquered."