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饭后犯困是因为吃饱?
添加时间:2017-08-31 20:55:33 浏览次数: 作者:未知
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  • Don't blame that long lunch meeting or low caffeine levels for your lack of care-factor in the early afternoon.

    在下午的早些时候感觉身体被掏空,是怪午餐会议太长,还是体内咖啡因不够。(它们表示这锅我们不背)。

    New research suggests your brain's reward functions are tuned1 in to your body's daily rhythms, with 2 pm being the low-point in your ability to feel good about nailing that big, important task.

    最新研究表明,你的大脑可以根据你的日常规律自动调节来适应,到了下午两点你的体能状态会降到一个最低值,就不适合做什么重大的任务啦。

    The post-lunch slump2 is a familiar feeling for many people, often resulting in either a siesta3 or a masculine-sounding fizzy beverage4.

    很多人都会有午餐后怠倦的感觉,要么就选择小睡一会,要么就来一个提神醒脑的气泡饮料。

    Researchers from Swinburne University of Technology in Australia decided5 to look into just how much of our desire to commit to a task was linked to our body's natural circadian rhythm.

    来自澳大利亚的斯威本科技大学的研究人员想要了解,我们身体的昼夜节律对于完成任务有怎样的影响。

    Using an imaging technique called blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional6 magnetic resonance7 imaging (fMRI), the team investigated how parts of the brain responded to a sense of reward at different times of the day in a group of 16 healthy, right-handed men.

    使用一项医学显像技术血氧合度依赖性功能性磁共振成像,样本人群为一组16人的右胚子,健康男性,来观察他们的大脑对一天之内的对于奖励刺激的反应。

    The volunteers were given a task where they had to guess whether the hidden value of a digital card on a screen was higher or lower than five. Guessing correctly earned a reward, while an incorrect guess was penalised.

    志愿者需要完成在屏幕上猜电子牌的数是大于5还是小于5。猜对就得到奖励,猜错就会有相应的惩罚。

    To motivate the volunteers, the researchers told them they would receive a bonus for the best of three trials conducted at three different times; 10 am, 2 pm, and 7 pm.

    为了鼓励志愿者,每日测试三次分别在10点,下午2点,晚上7点累计的前三名,还会得到额外的奖励。

    Watching their brains as they performed the task revealed a pattern of activity in a structure at the base of the brain called the putamen.

    在他们完成任务的过程中,观察他们大脑组织中“豆状核”的活动模式。

    This round blob of brain tissue manages a number of tasks, many revolving8 around learning and reinforcing behaviours that give the best chance of a good outcome. Having it primed at certain times over others can be interpreted as being ready to deal with an unexpected reward.

    这种大脑组织中的圆形器官负责处理许多的任务,其中很多都是围绕产生有益的学习和巩固的行为。它会让实验参与者认为,只要比别人才对次数多,而且达到一定数量,就意味着能够得到额外的奖励。

    "We found that activations in the left putamen, the reward centre located at the base of the forebrain, were consistently lowest at the 2 pm measurement compared to the start and end of the day," says researcher Jamie Byrne.“

    “我们发现活跃的区域位于左侧“豆状核”,奖励反应的中心,在前脑的深处,连续几天的测试比较发现,下午两点的测试结果是一天三次中成绩最差的。”研究人员杰米布莱恩说。

    his is in line with their hypothesis, which claimed the brain's response to rewards varies according to the same biological rhythm that encourages us to wake, sleep, or feel hungry during the day.

    这印证了他们之前假设,大脑对于奖励刺激和身体让我们醒来、睡觉、饥饿的生物节律是一样的。

    In other words, our brain isn't expecting a task to be as rewarding in the morning and late in the evening as it is in the middle of the day.

    换句话说,比起早晨和晚上,在中午我们的大脑对于奖励的渴望并没有那么强烈。

    The research doesn't provide evidence explaining the reasons why our brains are primed to learn from experiences better at the beginning and end of a day. It was also only on a small group of males, so there's still plenty of room for debate.

    研究并没有说明为什么我们的大脑为什么早晚的学习能力强,而且式样的样本也只是一组为数不多的男性,所以还有很多让人质疑的空间。

    It's possible that these are high-risk times, where our bodies are tired, hungry, or exposed to more threats.

    说不定还有其他一些不好的原因,比如我们累了、饿了、感觉到危机四伏等等。

    Having a brain that's primed to deal with problems that could result in unexpected rewards at certain times of day could save time and maximise benefits.

    知道了大脑什么时候最容易处理问题,就能够在每天特定的时间基于额外的奖励刺激,能够节约时间,产生利润的最大化。

    For the rest of us, the research is a convenient excuse to take an extra hour to socialise in the lunch-room.

    对于我们来说,这项研究给我们提供一个好的借口,在用餐室尽情社交。

    Just tell the boss your brain is expecting a better reward.

    只要告诉你的老板,你的大脑需要更好的奖励刺激就行啦。

     8级    英语科普 
     单词标签: tuned  slump  siesta  beverage  decided  functional  resonance  revolving 


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    1 tuned [tju:nd] b40b43fd5af2db4fbfeb4e83856e4876   第7级
    adj.调谐的,已调谐的v.调音( tune的过去式和过去分词 );调整;(给收音机、电视等)调谐;使协调
    参考例句:
    • The resort is tuned in to the tastes of young and old alike. 这个度假胜地适合各种口味,老少皆宜。
    • The instruments should be tuned up before each performance. 每次演出开始前都应将乐器调好音。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    2 slump [slʌmp] 4E8zU   第8级
    n.暴跌,意气消沉,(土地)下沉;vi.猛然掉落,坍塌,大幅度下跌
    参考例句:
    • She is in a slump in her career. 她处在事业的低谷。
    • Economists are forecasting a slump. 经济学家们预言将发生经济衰退。
    3 siesta [siˈestə] Urayw   第12级
    n.午睡
    参考例句:
    • Lots of people were taking a short siesta in the shade. 午后很多人在阴凉处小睡。
    • He had acquired the knack of snatching his siesta in the most unfavourable circumstance. 他学会了在最喧闹的场合下抓紧时间睡觉的诀窍。
    4 beverage [ˈbevərɪdʒ] 0QgyN   第7级
    n.(水,酒等之外的)饮料
    参考例句:
    • The beverage is often colored with caramel. 这种饮料常用焦糖染色。
    • Beer is a beverage of the remotest time. 啤酒是一种最古老的饮料。
    5 decided [dɪˈsaɪdɪd] lvqzZd   第7级
    adj.决定了的,坚决的;明显的,明确的
    参考例句:
    • This gave them a decided advantage over their opponents. 这使他们比对手具有明显的优势。
    • There is a decided difference between British and Chinese way of greeting. 英国人和中国人打招呼的方式有很明显的区别。
    6 functional [ˈfʌŋkʃənl] 5hMxa   第8级
    adj.为实用而设计的,具备功能的,起作用的
    参考例句:
    • The telephone was out of order, but is functional now. 电话刚才坏了,但现在可以用了。
    • The furniture is not fancy, just functional. 这些家具不是摆着好看的,只是为了实用。
    7 resonance [ˈrezənəns] hBazC   第7级
    n.洪亮;共鸣;共振
    参考例句:
    • Playing the piano sets up resonance in those glass ornaments. 一弹钢琴那些玻璃饰物就会产生共振。
    • The areas under the two resonance envelopes are unequal. 两个共振峰下面的面积是不相等的。
    8 revolving [rɪˈvɒlvɪŋ] 3jbzvd   第7级
    adj.旋转的,轮转式的;循环的v.(使)旋转( revolve的现在分词 );细想
    参考例句:
    • The theatre has a revolving stage. 剧院有一个旋转舞台。
    • The company became a revolving-door workplace. 这家公司成了工作的中转站。

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