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添加时间:2019-02-12 15:40:19 浏览次数: 作者:未知
  • An estimate of dog intelligence requires looking at non-dogs as well to understand what’s special to canines2 and what is just typical of the taxonomic groups they’re in.


    If you have a dog, you’ve probably tried to train it. The basics, like sit and stay. Plus, of course, not to go to the bathroom on your rugs. And if your dog learns things quickly, you might start to think it’s really smart. But:

    如果你有一只狗,你可能会尝试训练它一些基本知识,例如:坐下来。 当然还包括告诉狗狗不要踩着地毯去卧室。 如果你的狗能快速学会指令,你可能会认为它非常聪明。 但:

    “If you really want to know about dog intelligence, you have to look at non-dogs as well to understand what’s special to dogs and what is just typical of groups they belong to.”


    Stephen Lea, a retired3 professor of psychology4 from the University of Exeter in the U.K. He and colleagues looked at dog intelligence in an animal intelligence context for a report in the journal Learning & Behavior. [Stephen EG Lea and Britta Osthaus, In what sense are dogs special? Canine1 cognition in comparative context)

    来自英国埃克塞特大学心理学的退休教授斯蒂芬·利亚及其同事在基于动物智商研究的背景下着眼于狗智商的研究,并在《学习与行为》杂志上发表了一篇报道-(Stephen EG Lea和Britta Osthaus合著,《从什么角度而言,狗具有特殊性?比较视角下的犬类认知研究》

    Lea and his team looked at hundreds of published studies to compare dog cognition with that of other animals. They found that dogs are adept5 at picking up on social cues.

    利亚和他的团队研究了数百篇已发表的研究论文,用以比较狗的认知与其他动物的认知的区别。 他们发现,相比其它动物,狗更擅长领会一些社交暗号。

    “They’re good, for example, at using human pointing or following human gaze, looking at what you’re looking at. We’re not saying dogs aren’t good at those tasks, they are. What we were saying is that there are some other animals that are just as good at them.”


    Like bottlenose dolphins and gray seals.


    “It’s not something that’s unique to dogs or indeed that unexpected in dogs, given the sorts of animals dogs are. Namely, they’re domesticated6, They’re derived7 from social hunters. And important, they’re carnivores. They belong to a big group of mammals that also includes cats, hyenas8, otters9, bears, and also the seals and sea lions, which we sometimes forget about. But which, of course, are also very easy to train despite not being domestic.”

    “这不是狗独有的东西,实际上,从狗狗所属于的动物类群来说,上述特点其实是狗狗意外获得的优势。 也就是说,它们被驯化了,它们来源于一群社会性的狩猎者。 而且重要的是,他们是食肉动物。 它们属于一个哺乳动物的大群体,其中还包括猫、鬣狗、水獭、熊、还有海豹和海狮,我们有时会忽略它们。 这些动物,尽管不能被完全驯化,但这也很容易被训练。”

    And while dog cognition may not actually be exceptional, their noses definitely are:


    “Their sense of smell…the extraordinary things that they can discriminate10, like which of two identical twins they’re looking at or sniffing11 at.”


    Lea also points out there are some tasks that dogs apparently12 cannot do, such as use tools or exhibit self-awareness. But:

    利亚还指出狗有一些显然不能完成的任务,比如使用工具或表现出自我意识。 但:

    “There’s always the possibility that someone, somewhere is at this moment demonstrating that a dog can do something that we said it couldn’t. And, because you can’t prove a negative, so we could be wrong…in some sense, one reason why we wrote the paper was to challenge our colleagues to, okay, show us the evidence. Find a dog that will do these things and we’ll happily change our minds. We’re not, oh, I can feel the word coming: we’re not dogmatic.”

    “总有可能,某个人在某个地方此刻正在证明狗可以做一些我们说不能做的事情。 并且,因为你无法证明狗是不可能做的,所以我们可能是错的......在某种意义上,我们撰写论文的一个原因是要向我们的同事提出挑战,促使他们向我们展示证据来推翻我们。 找到一只会做这些事情的狗,我们会愉快地改变主意。 我们并不是,哦,我能感受到这个词:我们不是教条主义者。”

     11级    双语 


    1 canine [ˈkeɪnaɪn] Lceyb   第9级
    • The fox is a canine animal. 狐狸是犬科动物。
    • Herbivorous animals have very small canine teeth, or none. 食草动物的犬牙很小或者没有。
    2 canines ['kænaɪnz] a19dc7100e8d5dd734b7ad167656d5d1   第9级
    n.犬齿( canine的名词复数 );犬牙;犬科动物
    • For example, the teeth are more primitive. There are large canines and unusually shaped incisors. 譬如,牙齿更为原始,有大的犬齿和非常合适的门齿。 来自辞典例句
    • Well-to-canines can attend doggy daycare centers while their owners work. 富人家的狗在主人上班的时候可以去狗狗托管中心。 来自互联网
    3 retired [rɪˈtaɪəd] Njhzyv   第8级
    • The old man retired to the country for rest. 这位老人下乡休息去了。
    • Many retired people take up gardening as a hobby. 许多退休的人都以从事园艺为嗜好。
    4 psychology [saɪˈkɒlədʒi] U0Wze   第7级
    • She has a background in child psychology. 她受过儿童心理学的教育。
    • He studied philosophy and psychology at Cambridge. 他在剑桥大学学习哲学和心理学。
    5 adept [əˈdept] EJIyO   第9级
    • When it comes to photography, I'm not an adept. 要说照相,我不是内行。
    • He was highly adept at avoiding trouble. 他十分善于避开麻烦。
    6 domesticated [dəʊ'mestɪkeɪtɪd] Lu2zBm   第10级
    adj.喜欢家庭生活的;(指动物)被驯养了的v.驯化( domesticate的过去式和过去分词 )
    • He is thoroughly domesticated and cooks a delicious chicken casserole. 他精于家务,烹制的砂锅炖小鸡非常可口。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    • The donkey is a domesticated form of the African wild ass. 驴是非洲野驴的一种已驯化的品种。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    7 derived [dɪ'raɪvd] 6cddb7353e699051a384686b6b3ff1e2   第7级
    vi.起源;由来;衍生;导出v.得到( derive的过去式和过去分词 );(从…中)得到获得;源于;(从…中)提取
    • Many English words are derived from Latin and Greek. 英语很多词源出于拉丁文和希腊文。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    • He derived his enthusiasm for literature from his father. 他对文学的爱好是受他父亲的影响。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    8 hyenas [haɪˈi:nəz] f7b0c2304b9433d9f69980a715aa6dbe   第12级
    n.鬣狗( hyena的名词复数 )
    • These animals were the prey of hyenas. 这些动物是鬣狗的猎物。 来自辞典例句
    • We detest with horror the duplicity and villainy of the murderous hyenas of Bukharinite wreckers. 我们非常憎恨布哈林那帮两面三刀、杀人破坏,干尽坏事的豺狼。 来自辞典例句
    9 otters [ˈɔtəz] c7b1b011f1aba54879393a220705a840   第11级
    n.(水)獭( otter的名词复数 );獭皮
    • An attempt is being made to entice otters back to the river. 人们正试图把水獭引诱回河里去。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    • Otters are believed to have been on Earth for 90 million years. 水獭被认为存活在地球上已经9千多万年。 来自互联网
    10 discriminate [dɪˈskrɪmɪneɪt] NuhxX   第7级
    • You must learn to discriminate between facts and opinions. 你必须学会把事实和看法区分出来。
    • They can discriminate hundreds of colours. 他们能分辨上百种颜色。
    11 sniffing [ˈsnifiŋ] 50b6416c50a7d3793e6172a8514a0576   第7级
    n.探查法v.以鼻吸气,嗅,闻( sniff的现在分词 );抽鼻子(尤指哭泣、患感冒等时出声地用鼻子吸气);抱怨,不以为然地说
    • We all had colds and couldn't stop sniffing and sneezing. 我们都感冒了,一个劲地抽鼻子,打喷嚏。
    • They all had colds and were sniffing and sneezing. 他们都伤风了,呼呼喘气而且打喷嚏。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
    12 apparently [əˈpærəntli] tMmyQ   第7级
    • An apparently blind alley leads suddenly into an open space. 山穷水尽,豁然开朗。
    • He was apparently much surprised at the news. 他对那个消息显然感到十分惊异。

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