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添加时间:2019-04-28 10:53:45 浏览次数: 作者:未知
  • Probiotics are sold to us as 'good' bacteria that help balance out 'bad' varieties of microbes camping out in our gut1. But a new experiment on mice has shown how our microbial allies can evolve into traitorous2 backstabbers that risk causing damage to our guts3.


    "If we're going to use living things as medicines, we need to recognise that they're going to adapt, and that means that what you put in your body is not necessarily what's going to be there even a couple hours later," says pathologist and biomedical engineer Gautam Dantas.

    病理学家兼生物医学工程师Gautam Dantas说:“如果我们要把生物作为药物来使用,我们需要认识到它们会适应环境,这意味着在体内呆了几个小时的东西不一定和你放入身体的东西是一个。”

    "There is no microbe out there that is immune to evolution."“没有一种微生物对进化免疫。”

    Dantas led a team of researchers from the University of Washington who evaluated a bacterium4 marketed to help combat diarrhoea: EcN.


    To evaluate the potential of EcN's evolution after it's swallowed, the research team used mice specially5 bred to be completely germ free.


    The test subjects were divided into four groups, each with a distinct gut microbiome. One was left completely sterile6; the other three were given microbiomes reflecting various healthy and unhealthy states.


    Each group was dosed with EcN and then fed one of the following options - boring old lab mouse chow, a more natural mouse-friendly diet, a Westernised diet high in fats and sugars, and a Westernised diet that had some fibre added.


    Five weeks later, the mice had their guts examined. Those happy little E. coli? It turns out they weren't all quite as friendly as they had been on their way in, especially in guts that had to deal with less than healthy diets.


    Inside mouse guts filled with westernised foods, EcN had accumulated mutations that helped them cope with stress and make use of all of those carbohydrates7 to hang around longer than intended.


     9级    双语 
     单词标签: gut  traitorous  guts  bacterium  specially  sterile  carbohydrates 


    1 gut [gʌt] MezzP   第7级
    • It is not always necessary to gut the fish prior to freezing. 冷冻鱼之前并不总是需要先把内脏掏空。
    • My immediate gut feeling was to refuse. 我本能的直接反应是拒绝。
    2 traitorous ['treɪtərəs] 938beb8f257e13202e2f1107668c59b0   第7级
    adj. 叛国的, 不忠的, 背信弃义的
    • All traitorous persons and cliques came to no good end. 所有的叛徒及叛徒集团都没好下场。
    • Most of the time I keep such traitorous thoughts to myself. 这种叛逆思想我不大向别人暴露。
    3 guts [gʌts] Yraziv   第7级
    v.狼吞虎咽,贪婪地吃,飞碟游戏(比赛双方每组5人,相距15码,互相掷接飞碟);毁坏(建筑物等)的内部( gut的第三人称单数 );取出…的内脏n.勇气( gut的名词复数 );内脏;消化道的下段;肠
    • I'll only cook fish if the guts have been removed. 鱼若已收拾干净,我只需烧一下即可。
    • Barbara hasn't got the guts to leave her mother. 巴巴拉没有勇气离开她妈妈。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    4 bacterium [bæk'tɪərɪəm] BN7zE   第7级
    n.(pl.bacteria )细菌
    • The bacterium possibly goes in the human body by the mouth. 细菌可能通过口进入人体。
    • A bacterium is identified as the cause for his duodenal ulcer. 一种细菌被断定为造成他十二指肠溃疡的根源。
    5 specially [ˈspeʃəli] Hviwq   第7级
    • They are specially packaged so that they stack easily. 它们经过特别包装以便于堆放。
    • The machine was designed specially for demolishing old buildings. 这种机器是专为拆毁旧楼房而设计的。
    6 sterile [ˈsteraɪl] orNyQ   第9级
    • This top fits over the bottle and keeps the teat sterile. 这个盖子严实地盖在奶瓶上,保持奶嘴无菌。
    • The farmers turned the sterile land into high fields. 农民们把不毛之地变成了高产田。
    7 carbohydrates [kɑ:bə'haɪdreɪts] 001f0186d1ea717492c413ca718f2635   第7级
    n.碳水化合物,糖类( carbohydrate的名词复数 );淀粉质或糖类食物
    • The plant uses the carbohydrates to make cellulose. 植物用碳水化合物制造纤维素。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    • All carbohydrates originate from plants. 所有的碳水化合物均来自植物。 来自辞典例句

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