轻松背单词新浪微博 轻松背单词腾讯微博
当前位置:首页 -> 12级英语阅读 - > 研究人员发现了一种新的物质状态:液态玻璃
添加时间:2021-05-17 13:15:47 浏览次数: 作者:未知
  • Researchers Discovered A New State Of Matter: Liquid Glass研究人员发现了一种新的物质状态:液态玻璃

    Glass is truly a peculiar1 material. Despite being solid, its components2 are not organized in a nice crystalline structure like other solids. Its molecules3 get frozen in place before they can organize themselves into a crystal. The quest to understand glass has led researchers to discover a new state of matter: liquid glass.


    Liquid glass was created with particles that were able to flow, but couldn’t rotate. As reported in the Proceedings4 of the National Academy of Sciences, this new state gives insight into how regular glass might form.


    Dr Alfredo Carpineti

    The starting point of this investigation5 was the use of colloids, mixtures of “large” particles dispersed7 through a second substance. Gels and emulsions are examples of colloids. These substances can experience many phenomena8 that occur in glass-forming material, so they are a good proxy9 to study these glass transition.


    The team involved in this research decided10 to attempt something different than previous studies. Instead of using spherical11 particles in their colloid6, they manufactured special elliptical (egg-shaped) particles. By changing the concentration of these in the mixtures, they discovered the unusual liquid glass behavior.


    "Due to their distinct shapes our particles have orientation12 – as opposed to spherical particles – which gives rise to entirely13 new and previously14 unstudied kinds of complex behaviors," senior author Professor Andreas Zumbusch, from the University of Konstanz, said in a statement. "At certain particle densities15 orientational16 motion froze whereas translational motion persisted, resulting in glassy states where the particles clustered to form local structures with similar orientation."康斯坦茨大学的资深作者安德烈亚斯·祖姆布施教授在一份声明中说:“由于它们独特的形状,我们的粒子具有方向性——与球形粒子不同——这就产生了全新的、以前从未研究过的复杂行为。”“在特定的粒子密度下,定向运动冻结,而平移运动持续,导致粒子聚集形成具有相似取向的局部结构的玻璃态。”

    The position and orientation of the ellipsoid particles in the liquid glass. Research groups of Professor Andreas Zumbusch and Professor Matthias FuchsWhat the researchers saw in this particular substance were two competing glass transitions. One was a regular phase transformation17, which is reversible. The other was a non-equilibrium one, which is irreversible. This combination might be what produces the peculiar properties of glass.


    "This is incredibly interesting from a theoretical vantage point," says Dr Matthias Fuchs, professor of soft condensed matter theory at the University of Konstanz and the other senior author on the paper. "Our experiments provide the kind of evidence for the interplay between critical fluctuations18 and glassy arrest that the scientific community has been after for quite some time."康斯坦茨大学软凝聚态理论教授Matthias Fuchs博士说:“从理论的角度来看,这非常有趣。”他也是这篇论文的另一位资深作者。“我们的实验为临界波动和玻璃阻滞之间的相互作用提供了证据,这是科学界一直在研究的问题。”

    Understanding glass is not just about the material that makes our windows. A wide range of materials behave like glass, including plastics and metals, as well as organic substances such as proteins and even biological cells.


    Theoretical investigations19 of liquid glass have been going on for two decades. This first result will have a long-reaching effect in the field of material science.


     12级    双语 


    1 peculiar [pɪˈkju:liə(r)] cinyo   第7级
    • He walks in a peculiar fashion. 他走路的样子很奇特。
    • He looked at me with a very peculiar expression. 他用一种很奇怪的表情看着我。
    2 components [kəm'pəʊnənt] 4725dcf446a342f1473a8228e42dfa48   第7级
    (机器、设备等的)构成要素,零件,成分; 成分( component的名词复数 ); [物理化学]组分; [数学]分量; (混合物的)组成部分
    • the components of a machine 机器部件
    • Our chemistry teacher often reduces a compound to its components in lab. 在实验室中化学老师常把化合物分解为各种成分。
    3 molecules ['mɒlɪkju:lz] 187c25e49d45ad10b2f266c1fa7a8d49   第7级
    分子( molecule的名词复数 )
    • The structure of molecules can be seen under an electron microscope. 分子的结构可在电子显微镜下观察到。
    • Inside the reactor the large molecules are cracked into smaller molecules. 在反应堆里,大分子裂变为小分子。
    4 proceedings [prə'si:diŋz] Wk2zvX   第7级
    • He was released on bail pending committal proceedings. 他交保获释正在候审。
    • to initiate legal proceedings against sb 对某人提起诉讼
    5 investigation [ɪnˌvestɪˈgeɪʃn] MRKzq   第7级
    • In an investigation, a new fact became known, which told against him. 在调查中新发现了一件对他不利的事实。
    • He drew the conclusion by building on his own investigation. 他根据自己的调查研究作出结论。
    6 colloid ['kɒlɔɪd] pX7zP   第11级
    • No colloid, surfactants or emulsifying agents are employed in the process. 本法不使用胶、表面活化剂或乳化剂。
    • Most colloid have a milky appearance under bright lights. 多数胶体在强光照射下呈乳浊状。
    7 dispersed [dɪ'spɜ:st] b24c637ca8e58669bce3496236c839fa   第7级
    adj. 被驱散的, 被分散的, 散布的
    • The clouds dispersed themselves. 云散了。
    • After school the children dispersed to their homes. 放学后,孩子们四散回家了。
    8 phenomena [fə'nɒmɪnə] 8N9xp   第12级
    • Ade couldn't relate the phenomena with any theory he knew. 艾德无法用他所知道的任何理论来解释这种现象。
    • The object of these experiments was to find the connection, if any, between the two phenomena. 这些实验的目的就是探索这两种现象之间的联系,如果存在着任何联系的话。
    9 proxy [ˈprɒksi] yRXxN   第10级
    • You may appoint a proxy to vote for you. 你可以委托他人代你投票。
    • We enclose a form of proxy for use at the Annual General Meeting. 我们附上委任年度大会代表的表格。
    10 decided [dɪˈsaɪdɪd] lvqzZd   第7级
    • This gave them a decided advantage over their opponents. 这使他们比对手具有明显的优势。
    • There is a decided difference between British and Chinese way of greeting. 英国人和中国人打招呼的方式有很明显的区别。
    11 spherical [ˈsferɪkl] 7FqzQ   第9级
    • The Earth is a nearly spherical planet. 地球是一个近似球体的行星。
    • Many engineers shy away from spherical projection methods. 许多工程师对球面投影法有畏难情绪。
    12 orientation [ˌɔ:riənˈteɪʃn] IJ4xo   第7级
    • Children need some orientation when they go to school. 小孩子上学时需要适应。
    • The traveller found his orientation with the aid of a good map. 旅行者借助一幅好地图得知自己的方向。
    13 entirely [ɪnˈtaɪəli] entirely   第9级
    • The fire was entirely caused by their neglect of duty. 那场火灾完全是由于他们失职而引起的。
    • His life was entirely given up to the educational work. 他的一生统统献给了教育工作。
    14 previously ['pri:vɪəslɪ] bkzzzC   第8级
    • The bicycle tyre blew out at a previously damaged point. 自行车胎在以前损坏过的地方又爆开了。
    • Let me digress for a moment and explain what had happened previously. 让我岔开一会儿,解释原先发生了什么。
    15 densities [ˈdensitiz] eca5c1ea104bef3058e858fe084fb6d0   第7级
    密集( density的名词复数 ); 稠密; 密度(固体、液体或气体单位体积的质量); 密度(磁盘存贮数据的可用空间)
    • The range of densities of interest is about 3.5. 有用的密度范围为3.5左右。
    • Densities presumably can be probed by radar. 利用雷达也许还能探测出气体的密度。
    16 orientational [ɔ:rɪen'teɪʃənl] 53fb02f91a53c8e1a44ead36064f5c6c   第7级
    • The transformation is specified by six parameters: three translational and three orientational. 这种变换由六个要素决定:三个平面要素和三个定向要素。 来自互联网
    • Site-specific infrared dichroism enables orientational analysis of TMα-helices bundles in aligned bilayers. 位点特异的红外二色性分析可使得在脂双层中定向分析跨膜α螺旋束成为可能。 来自互联网
    17 transformation [ˌtrænsfəˈmeɪʃn] SnFwO   第7级
    • Going to college brought about a dramatic transformation in her outlook. 上大学使她的观念发生了巨大的变化。
    • He was struggling to make the transformation from single man to responsible husband. 他正在努力使自己由单身汉变为可靠的丈夫。
    18 fluctuations [ˌflʌktjʊ'eɪʃəns] 5ffd9bfff797526ec241b97cfb872d61   第9级
    波动,涨落,起伏( fluctuation的名词复数 )
    • He showed the price fluctuations in a statistical table. 他用统计表显示价格的波动。
    • There were so many unpredictable fluctuations on the Stock Exchange. 股票市场瞬息万变。
    19 investigations [ɪnvestɪ'ɡeɪʃnz] 02de25420938593f7db7bd4052010b32   第7级
    (正式的)调查( investigation的名词复数 ); 侦查; 科学研究; 学术研究
    • His investigations were intensive and thorough but revealed nothing. 他进行了深入彻底的调查,但没有发现什么。
    • He often sent them out to make investigations. 他常常派他们出去作调查。

    文章评论 共有评论 0查看全部