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添加时间:2017-08-27 18:39:45 浏览次数: 作者:未知
  • The MIT Technology Review published on Wednesday a news report about the first-known experiment to create genetically2 modified human embryos4 in the United States using a gene-editing tool called CRISPR.


    Shoukhrat Mitalipov, director of the Oregon Health & Science University's Center for Embryonic5 Cell and Gene Therapy, reportedly led the new research. Mitalipov and the university would not confirm details of the research to CNN.


    "Results of the peer-reviewed study are expected to be published soon in a scientific journal. No further information will be provided before then," according to an emailed statement from the university's press office. Another researcher cited in the MIT report, the Salk Institute's Jun Wu, did not reply to CNN's request for comment.


    Previously6, Mitalipov and his colleagues reported the first success in cloning human stem cells in 2013, successfully reprogramming human skin cells back to their embryonic state. In 2007, a research team led by Mitalipov announced they created the first cloned monkey embryo3 and extracted stem cells from it.


    The MIT Technology Review reported that the researchers in Portland, Oregon, edited the DNA7 of a large number of one-cell embryos, specifically targeting genes8 associated with inherited diseases in those embryos. The MIT Technology Review could not determine which disease genes had been chosen for editing in the new research.


    Previously, scientists in China were the first in the world to reveal attempts to modify genes in human embryos using CRISPR. Three separate papers were published in scientific journals describing various studies in China on gene editing in human embryos.


    Yet the research has already generated attention and controversy9.


    "This is pushing the research faster than I thought we would see," said Dana Carroll, professor of biochemistry at the University of Utah, "if the MIT Technology Review report rings true." Carroll has used CRISPR in his own studies, but was not involved in the new research.


    The controversy surrounding gene-editing in human embryos partly stems from concern that the changes CRISPR makes in DNA can be passed down to the offspring of those embryos later in life, from generation to generation. Down the line, that could possibly impact the genetic1 makeup10 of humans in erratic11 ways.


    "There is also considerable concern about off-target effects, such as making mutations at sites in the genome other than the intended target," said Carroll. In other words, an edit made in one area of DNA possibly could cause problems in another, as a ripple12 or domino effect, which could be concerning.


    Some CRISPR critics also have argued that gene-editing may give way to eugenics and to allowing embryos to be edited with certain features in order to develop so-called designer babies.


    Though, not all experts are too concerned.


    The enthusiasm surrounding gene-editing in human embryos partly stems from the promise CRISPR has shown in editing away and treating devastating13 intractable diseases. Earlier this year, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine published a report on human genome editing, addressing potential applications of gene editing, including the possible prevention or treatment of disease.


     10级    英语科普 


    1 genetic [dʒəˈnetɪk] PgIxp   第7级
    • It's very difficult to treat genetic diseases. 遗传性疾病治疗起来很困难。
    • Each daughter cell can receive a full complement of the genetic information. 每个子细胞可以收到遗传信息的一个完全补偿物。
    2 genetically [dʒi'netikəli] Lgixo   第7级
    • All the bees in the colony are genetically related. 同一群体的蜜蜂都有亲缘关系。
    • Genetically modified foods have already arrived on American dinner tables. 经基因改造加工过的食物已端上了美国人的餐桌。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 基因与食物
    3 embryo [ˈembriəʊ] upAxt   第8级
    • They are engaging in an embryo research. 他们正在进行一项胚胎研究。
    • The project was barely in embryo. 该计划只是个雏形。
    4 embryos ['embrɪəʊz] 0e62a67414ef42288b74539e591aa30a   第8级
    n.晶胚;胚,胚胎( embryo的名词复数 )
    • Somatic cells of angiosperms enter a regenerative phase and behave like embryos. 被子植物体细胞进入一个生殖阶段,而且其行为象胚。 来自辞典例句
    • Evolution can explain why human embryos look like gilled fishes. 进化论能够解释为什么人类的胚胎看起来象除去了内脏的鱼一样。 来自辞典例句
    5 embryonic [ˌembriˈɒnɪk] 58EyK   第11级
    • It is still in an embryonic stage. 它还处于萌芽阶段。
    • The plan, as yet, only exists in embryonic form. 这个计划迄今为止还只是在酝酿之中。
    6 previously ['pri:vɪəslɪ] bkzzzC   第8级
    • The bicycle tyre blew out at a previously damaged point. 自行车胎在以前损坏过的地方又爆开了。
    • Let me digress for a moment and explain what had happened previously. 让我岔开一会儿,解释原先发生了什么。
    7 DNA [ˌdi: en ˈeɪ] 4u3z1l   第8级
    (缩)deoxyribonucleic acid 脱氧核糖核酸
    • DNA is stored in the nucleus of a cell. 脱氧核糖核酸储存于细胞的细胞核里。
    • Gene mutations are alterations in the DNA code. 基因突变是指DNA密码的改变。
    8 genes [dʒi:nz] 01914f8eac35d7e14afa065217edd8c0   第7级
    n.基因( gene的名词复数 )
    • You have good genes from your parents, so you should live a long time. 你从父母那儿获得优良的基因,所以能够活得很长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    • Differences will help to reveal the functions of the genes. 它们间的差异将会帮助我们揭开基因多种功能。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 生物技术的世纪
    9 controversy [ˈkɒntrəvɜ:si] 6Z9y0   第7级
    • That is a fact beyond controversy. 那是一个无可争论的事实。
    • We ran the risk of becoming the butt of every controversy. 我们要冒使自己在所有的纷争中都成为众矢之的的风险。
    10 makeup ['meɪkʌp] 4AXxO   第7级
    • Those who failed the exam take a makeup exam. 这次考试不及格的人必须参加补考。
    • Eyeliner: Makeup used to outline the eyes. 眼线笔:用来加强眼的轮廓的化妆品。
    11 erratic [ɪˈrætɪk] ainzj   第9级
    • The old man had always been cranky and erratic. 那老头儿性情古怪,反复无常。
    • The erratic fluctuation of market prices is in consequence of unstable economy. 经济波动致使市场物价忽起忽落。
    12 ripple [ˈrɪpl] isLyh   第7级
    n.涟波,涟漪,波纹,粗钢梳;vt.使...起涟漪,使起波纹; vi.呈波浪状,起伏前进
    • The pebble made a ripple on the surface of the lake. 石子在湖面上激起一个涟漪。
    • The small ripple split upon the beach. 小小的涟漪卷来,碎在沙滩上。
    13 devastating [ˈdevəsteɪtɪŋ] muOzlG   第8级
    • It is the most devastating storm in 20 years. 这是20年来破坏性最大的风暴。
    • Affairs do have a devastating effect on marriages. 婚外情确实会对婚姻造成毁灭性的影响。

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