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当前位置:首页 -> 12级英语阅读 - > 为何狗狗如此友善?
为何狗狗如此友善?
添加时间:2017-08-31 21:14:40 浏览次数: 作者:未知
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  • Being friendly is in dogs' nature and could be key to how they came to share our lives, say US scientists.

    据美国科学家表示,狗狗友善的天性可能是它们能与人类一起生活的关键因素。

    Dogs evolved from wolves tens of thousands of years ago. During this time, certain genes1 that make dogs particularly gregarious2 have been selected for, according to research.

    狗是在几万年前从狼进化而来的。研究显示,在这段时间里,某些使狗变得特别温顺合群的基因留了下来。

    This may give dogs their distinctive3 personalities4, including a craving5 for human company.

    这可能使得狗狗具备一些特别的个性,包括非常喜欢和人类待在一起。

    "Our finding of genetic6 variation in both dogs and wolves provides a possible insight into animal personality, and may even suggest similar genes may have roles in other domestic species (maybe cats even)," said Dr Bridgett of Princeton University.

    普林斯顿大学的布里奇特博士表示:“我们在狗和狼身上发现了一定程度的遗传变异,这有助于了解动物的性格,甚至类似的基因可能在其他的物种(甚至是猫)中也有作用。”

    The researchers studied the behaviour of domestic dogs, and grey wolves living in captivity7. They carried out a number of tests of the animals' skills at problem-solving and sociability8.

    研究人员研究了家养狗和圈养的灰狼的行为特点。同时,他们对动物的解决问题的能力和社交能力进行了一系列测试。

    These showed that wolves were as good as dogs at solving problems, such as retrieving9 pieces of sausage from a plastic lunchbox.

    这些研究表明,狼和狗一样善于解决问题,比如从一个塑料午餐盒里取出一些香肠。

    Dogs, however, were much more friendly. They spent more time greeting human strangers and gazing at them, while wolves were somewhat aloof10.

    但是,狗更友好,他们会更愿意向陌生人问好,并看着他们,而狼则有些冷漠。

    DNA11 tests found a link between certain genetic changes and behaviours such as attentiveness12 to strangers or picking up on social cues.

    DNA测试发现,某些基因与行为有一定联系,如对陌生人的注意力,或对一些暗示的反应。

    Dr Elaine Ostrander of the National Institutes of Health, who was a co-researcher on the study, said the information would be useful in studying human disease.

    美国卫生研究院的伊莱恩·奥斯特兰德博士也是研究人员之一,他表示,这些信息对研究人类疾病很有用。

     12级    英语科普 


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    1 genes [dʒi:nz] 01914f8eac35d7e14afa065217edd8c0   第7级
    n.基因( gene的名词复数 )
    参考例句:
    • You have good genes from your parents, so you should live a long time. 你从父母那儿获得优良的基因,所以能够活得很长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    • Differences will help to reveal the functions of the genes. 它们间的差异将会帮助我们揭开基因多种功能。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 生物技术的世纪
    2 gregarious [grɪˈgeəriəs] DfuxO   第10级
    adj.群居的,喜好群居的
    参考例句:
    • These animals are highly gregarious. 这些动物非常喜欢群居。
    • They are gregarious birds and feed in flocks. 它们是群居鸟类, 会集群觅食。
    3 distinctive [dɪˈstɪŋktɪv] Es5xr   第8级
    adj.特别的,有特色的,与众不同的
    参考例句:
    • She has a very distinctive way of walking. 她走路的样子与别人很不相同。
    • This bird has several distinctive features. 这个鸟具有几种突出的特征。
    4 personalities [ˌpɜ:sə'nælɪtɪz] ylOzsg   第12级
    n. 诽谤,(对某人容貌、性格等所进行的)人身攻击; 人身攻击;人格, 个性, 名人( personality的名词复数 )
    参考例句:
    • There seemed to be a degree of personalities in her remarks. 她话里有些人身攻击的成分。
    • Personalities are not in good taste in general conversation. 在一般的谈话中诽谤他人是不高尚的。
    5 craving ['kreiviŋ] zvlz3e   第8级
    n.渴望,热望
    参考例句:
    • a craving for chocolate 非常想吃巧克力
    • She skipped normal meals to satisfy her craving for chocolate and crisps. 她不吃正餐,以便满足自己吃巧克力和炸薯片的渴望。
    6 genetic [dʒəˈnetɪk] PgIxp   第7级
    adj.遗传的,遗传学的
    参考例句:
    • It's very difficult to treat genetic diseases. 遗传性疾病治疗起来很困难。
    • Each daughter cell can receive a full complement of the genetic information. 每个子细胞可以收到遗传信息的一个完全补偿物。
    7 captivity [kæpˈtɪvəti] qrJzv   第10级
    n.囚禁;被俘;束缚
    参考例句:
    • A zoo is a place where live animals are kept in captivity for the public to see. 动物园是圈养动物以供公众观看的场所。
    • He was held in captivity for three years. 他被囚禁叁年。
    8 sociability [ˌsəʊʃə'bɪlətɪ] 37b33c93dded45f594b3deffb0ae3e81   第8级
    n.好交际,社交性,善于交际
    参考例句:
    • A fire of withered pine boughs added sociability to the gathering. 枯松枝生起的篝火给这次聚合增添了随和、友善的气氛。 来自辞典例句
    • A certain sociability degree is a specific character of most plants. 特定的群集度是多数植物特有的特征。 来自辞典例句
    9 retrieving [riˈtri:viŋ] 4eccedb9b112cd8927306f44cb2dd257   第7级
    n.检索(过程),取还v.取回( retrieve的现在分词 );恢复;寻回;检索(储存的信息)
    参考例句:
    • Ignoring all, he searches the ground carefully for any cigarette-end worth retrieving. 没管打锣的说了什么,他留神的在地上找,看有没有值得拾起来的烟头儿。 来自汉英文学 - 骆驼祥子
    • Retrieving the nodules from these great depths is no easy task. 从这样的海底深渊中取回结核可不是容易的事情。 来自辞典例句
    10 aloof [əˈlu:f] wxpzN   第9级
    adj.远离的;冷淡的,漠不关心的
    参考例句:
    • Never stand aloof from the masses. 千万不可脱离群众。
    • On the evening the girl kept herself timidly aloof from the crowd. 这小女孩在晚上一直胆怯地远离人群。
    11 DNA [ˌdi: en ˈeɪ] 4u3z1l   第8级
    (缩)deoxyribonucleic acid 脱氧核糖核酸
    参考例句:
    • DNA is stored in the nucleus of a cell. 脱氧核糖核酸储存于细胞的细胞核里。
    • Gene mutations are alterations in the DNA code. 基因突变是指DNA密码的改变。
    12 attentiveness [] 16d48271afd0aa8f2258f02f4f527672   第7级
    [医]注意
    参考例句:
    • They all helped one another with humourous attentiveness. 他们带着近于滑稽的殷勤互相周旋。 来自辞典例句
    • Is not attentiveness the nature of, even the function of, Conscious? 专注不正是大我意识的本质甚或活动吗? 来自互联网

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