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科学家找到决定怀孕成功的关键基因
添加时间:2017-10-04 18:18:06 浏览次数: 作者:未知
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  • Scientists have edited human embryos2 for the first time in the UK to discover a “master gene” that underpins3 successful pregnancies4. The “game-changing” research promises improved IVF outcomes and a breakthrough in understanding why so many pregnancies fail.

    科学家首次在英国对人类胚胎进行编辑,他们发现了一种为妊娠成功奠定基础的“主导基因”。这项“划时代”的研究有望提高体外受精成功率,并有助于了解很多人妊娠失败的原因。

    The Government-funded investigation5, undertaken by the Francis Crick Institute, is the first to prove that gene editing can be used to study the genetic6 behavior of human embryos in their first few days of life.

    弗兰西斯克里克研究所在政府的资助下进行了这项研究,首次证明可以利用基因编辑研究人类胚胎发育最初阶段的遗传行为。

    By removing a gene which produces a protein called OCT4, the team discovered it was crucial to a viable7 pregnancy8.

    通过移除一种名为OCT4的蛋白质生成基因,研究团队发现,该基因正是成功妊娠的关键。

    As well as its potential for more successful IVF, the discovery heralds9 a transformation10 in understanding the fundamental causes of infertility11 and miscarriage12.

    这一发现预示着人们对流产和不孕的根本原因的认识将发生改变,也预示着试管婴儿的成功率可能将提高。

    Approximately one in four couples are affected13 by fertility problems, and women under 35 currently have just a 32.2 percent chance of a live birth from one round of IVF.

    大约有1/4的夫妇受不孕不育的困扰,目前,35岁以下的女性单次体外受精生下活胎的几率只有32.2%。

    The odds14 decrease to 27.7 for women aged 35 to 37, and to 20.8 percent for those aged 38 and 39.

    35岁到37岁之间的女性单次体外受精生下活胎的几率则下降到27.7%,而38、39岁的女性则下降到20.8%。

    Dr Kathy Niakan, who led the research, said: “One way to find out what a gene does in the developing embryo1 is to see what happens when it isn’t working.

    该研究的领头人凯西•尼亚肯博士表示:“想要了解一种基因对发育中胚胎的影响,方法之一就是看当它失效时会发生什么。”

    “Now we have demonstrated an efficient way of doing this, we hope that other scientists will use it to find out the roles of other genes15.

    “现在,我们已经证明这种方法的有效性,我们希望其他科学家也能在研究其他基因的作用时使用这种方法。”

    “If we knew the key genes that embryos need to develop successfully, we could improve IVF treatments and understand some causes of pregnancy failure.”

    “如果我们了解了胚胎成功发育所需的关键基因,那么我们就可以提高试管婴儿技术,并搞清楚导致妊娠失败的一些原因。”

    The scientists, who studied 41 human embryos donated by IVF patients, used the gene-editing tool Crispr/Cas9 to make precise cuts in DNA16 and deactivate17 OCT4.

    科学家们对接受体外受精的患者捐献的41个人类胚胎进行了研究,使用Crispr/Cas9基因编辑工具精准地切割DNA,令OCT4基因失效。

    They found OCT4 appeared to be necessary for an embryo to become a blastocyst, a tiny ball of 200 cells that arises a week after conception and marks a key point in embryonic18 development.

    他们发现OCT4基因似乎是胚胎发育成囊胚的必要因素,囊胚是由200个细胞组成的小球体,在受精后一周左右开始出现,是胚胎发育的关键节点。

    Only when an embryo successfully reaches the blastocyst stage does it stand any chance of implanting in the womb.

    只有当胚胎成功进入囊胚期,才有可能植入子宫中。

    The study, published in the journal Nature, found fewer than a fifth of the test embryos reached the blastocyst stage without OCT4.

    这项发表在《自然》杂志上的研究发现,当缺乏OCT4基因时,进入囊胚期的实验胚胎不到1/5。

     12级    英语科普 


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    1 embryo [ˈembriəʊ] upAxt   第8级
    n.胚胎,萌芽的事物
    参考例句:
    • They are engaging in an embryo research. 他们正在进行一项胚胎研究。
    • The project was barely in embryo. 该计划只是个雏形。
    2 embryos ['embrɪəʊz] 0e62a67414ef42288b74539e591aa30a   第8级
    n.晶胚;胚,胚胎( embryo的名词复数 )
    参考例句:
    • Somatic cells of angiosperms enter a regenerative phase and behave like embryos. 被子植物体细胞进入一个生殖阶段,而且其行为象胚。 来自辞典例句
    • Evolution can explain why human embryos look like gilled fishes. 进化论能够解释为什么人类的胚胎看起来象除去了内脏的鱼一样。 来自辞典例句
    3 underpins [ˌʌndəˈpɪnz] 998953e540e369bb5f54bfcdaf83d62f   第11级
    n.基础材料( underpin的名词复数 );基础结构;(学说、理论等的)基础;(人的)腿v.用砖石结构等从下面支撑(墙等)( underpin的第三人称单数 );加固(墙等)的基础;为(论据、主张等)打下基础;加强
    参考例句:
    • A powerful sense of mission underpins everything he does. 一种强烈的使命感支撑他所做的一切。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    • His presence at the crime underpins the case against him. 案子发生时他在场对他更不利。 来自辞典例句
    4 pregnancies [ˈpreɡnənsiz] 2fedeb45162c233ee9e28d81888a2d2c   第9级
    怀孕,妊娠( pregnancy的名词复数 )
    参考例句:
    • Since the wartime population needed replenishment, pregnancies were a good sign. 最后一桩倒不失为好现象,战时人口正该补充。
    • She's had three pregnancies in four years. 她在四年中怀孕叁次。
    5 investigation [ɪnˌvestɪˈgeɪʃn] MRKzq   第7级
    n.调查,调查研究
    参考例句:
    • In an investigation, a new fact became known, which told against him. 在调查中新发现了一件对他不利的事实。
    • He drew the conclusion by building on his own investigation. 他根据自己的调查研究作出结论。
    6 genetic [dʒəˈnetɪk] PgIxp   第7级
    adj.遗传的,遗传学的
    参考例句:
    • It's very difficult to treat genetic diseases. 遗传性疾病治疗起来很困难。
    • Each daughter cell can receive a full complement of the genetic information. 每个子细胞可以收到遗传信息的一个完全补偿物。
    7 viable [ˈvaɪəbl] mi2wZ   第8级
    adj.可行的,切实可行的,能活下去的
    参考例句:
    • The scheme is economically viable. 这个计划从经济效益来看是可行的。
    • The economy of the country is not viable. 这个国家经济是难以维持的。
    8 pregnancy [ˈpregnənsi] lPwxP   第9级
    n.怀孕,怀孕期
    参考例句:
    • Early pregnancy is often accompanied by nausea. 怀孕早期常有恶心的现象。
    • Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage. 怀孕期吸烟会增加流产的危险。
    9 heralds [ˈherəldz] 85a7677643514d2e94585dc21f41b7ab   第8级
    n.使者( herald的名词复数 );预报者;预兆;传令官v.预示( herald的第三人称单数 );宣布(好或重要)
    参考例句:
    • The song of birds heralds the approach of spring. 百鸟齐鸣报春到。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
    • The wind sweeping through the tower heralds a rising storm in the mountain. 山雨欲来风满楼。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
    10 transformation [ˌtrænsfəˈmeɪʃn] SnFwO   第7级
    n.变化;改造;转变
    参考例句:
    • Going to college brought about a dramatic transformation in her outlook. 上大学使她的观念发生了巨大的变化。
    • He was struggling to make the transformation from single man to responsible husband. 他正在努力使自己由单身汉变为可靠的丈夫。
    11 infertility [ˌɪnfɜ:'tɪlətɪ] 37ExE   第9级
    n.不肥沃,不毛;不育
    参考例句:
    • It is the Geneva, Switzerland-based Biotech Company's second recombinant infertility drug. 它是瑞士生物技术公司在日内瓦的公司生产的第二种重组治疗不孕症的药。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 生物技术制药疫苗
    • Endometritis is a cause of infertility. 子宫内膜炎是不育的原子。 来自辞典例句
    12 miscarriage [ˈmɪskærɪdʒ] Onvzz3   第9级
    n.失败,未达到预期的结果;流产
    参考例句:
    • The miscarriage of our plans was a great blow. 计划的失败给我们以巨大的打击。
    • Women who smoke are more to have a miscarriage. 女性吸烟者更容易流产。
    13 affected [əˈfektɪd] TzUzg0   第9级
    adj.不自然的,假装的
    参考例句:
    • She showed an affected interest in our subject. 她假装对我们的课题感到兴趣。
    • His manners are affected. 他的态度不自然。
    14 odds [ɒdz] n5czT   第7级
    n.让步,机率,可能性,比率;胜败优劣之别
    参考例句:
    • The odds are 5 to 1 that she will win. 她获胜的机会是五比一。
    • Do you know the odds of winning the lottery once? 你知道赢得一次彩票的几率多大吗?
    15 genes [dʒi:nz] 01914f8eac35d7e14afa065217edd8c0   第7级
    n.基因( gene的名词复数 )
    参考例句:
    • You have good genes from your parents, so you should live a long time. 你从父母那儿获得优良的基因,所以能够活得很长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    • Differences will help to reveal the functions of the genes. 它们间的差异将会帮助我们揭开基因多种功能。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 生物技术的世纪
    16 DNA [ˌdi: en ˈeɪ] 4u3z1l   第8级
    (缩)deoxyribonucleic acid 脱氧核糖核酸
    参考例句:
    • DNA is stored in the nucleus of a cell. 脱氧核糖核酸储存于细胞的细胞核里。
    • Gene mutations are alterations in the DNA code. 基因突变是指DNA密码的改变。
    17 deactivate [ˌdi:ˈæktɪveɪt] oy8xP   第11级
    vt.使无效;复员
    参考例句:
    • Russia is deactivating some of its deadliest missiles. 俄罗斯正在拆除其一些最危险的导弹。
    • I go through several complex steps to try to "deactivate" my profile. 我尝试了那些复杂的步骤,试图“撤销”我的个人资料。
    18 embryonic [ˌembriˈɒnɪk] 58EyK   第11级
    adj.胚胎的;萌芽期的
    参考例句:
    • It is still in an embryonic stage. 它还处于萌芽阶段。
    • The plan, as yet, only exists in embryonic form. 这个计划迄今为止还只是在酝酿之中。

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