轻松背单词新浪微博 轻松背单词腾讯微博
当前位置:首页 -> 10级英语阅读 - > 语言能改变你我眼中的色彩
添加时间:2020-04-15 15:19:52 浏览次数: 作者:未知
  • he human eye can physically1 perceive millions of colours. But we don't all recognise these colours in the same way. Some people can't see differences in colours – so called colour blindness – due to a defect or absence of the cells in the retina that are sensitive to high levels of light: the cones2. But the distribution and density3 of these cells also varies across people with 'normal vision', causing us all to experience the same colour in slightly different ways.


    Besides our individual biological make up, colour perception is less about seeing what is actually out there and more about how our brain interprets colours to create something meaningful. The perception of colour mainly occurs inside our heads and so is subjective4 – and prone5 to personal experience.


    Take for instance people with synaesthesia, who are able to experience the perception of colour with letters and numbers. Synaesthesia is often described as a joining of the senses – where a person can see sounds or hear colours. But the colours they hear also differ from case to case.


    Since the day we were born we have learnt to categorise objects, colours, emotions, and pretty much everything meaningful using language. And although our eyes can perceive thousands of colours, the way we communicate about colour – and the way we use colour in our everyday lives – means we have to carve this huge variety up into identifiable, meaningful categories. Painters and fashion experts, for example, use colour terminology6 to refer to and discriminate7 hues8 and shades that to all intents and purposes may all be described with one term by a non-expert.


    Different languages and cultural groups also carve up the colour spectrum9 differently. Some languages like Dani, spoken in Papua New Guinea, and Bassa, spoken in Liberia and Sierra Leone, only have two terms, dark and light. Dark roughly translates as cool in those languages, and light as warm. So colours like black, blue, and green are glossed10 as cool colours, while lighter11 colours like white, red, orange and yellow are glossed as warm colours.


    The Warlpiri people living in Australia's Northern Territory don't even have a term for the word "colour". For these and other such cultural groups, what we would call "colour" is described by a rich vocabulary referring to texture12, physical sensation and functional13 purpose.


    Remarkably14, most of the world's languages have five basic colour terms. Cultures as diverse as the Himba in the Namibian plains and the Berinmo in the lush rainforests of Papua New Guinea employ such five term systems. As well as dark, light, and red, these languages typically have a term for yellow, and a term that denotes both blue and green. That is,these languages do not have separate terms for "green" and "blue" but use one term to describe both colours, a sort of "grue".


    Historically, Welsh had a "grue" term, namely glas, as did Japanese and Chinese. Nowadays, in all these languages, the original grue term has been restricted to blue, and a separate green term is used. This is either developed from within the language – as is the case for Japanese – or through lexical borrowing, as is the case for Welsh. Russian, Greek, Turkish and many other languages also have two separate terms for blue – one referring exclusively to darker shades, and one referring to lighter shades.


    The way we perceive colours can also change during our lifetime. Greek speakers, who have two fundamental colour terms to describe light and dark blue("ghalazio" and "ble"), are more prone to see these two colours as more similar after living for long periods of time in the UK. There, these two colours are described in English by the same fundamental colour term: blue. This is because after long term everyday exposure to an English-speaking environment, the brain of native Greek speakers starts interpreting the colours "ghalazio" and "ble" as part of the same colour category.


    But this isn't just something that happens with colour. In fact different languages can influence our perceptions in all areas of life. In our lab at Lancaster University we are investigating how the use of and exposure to different languages changes the way we perceive everyday objects. Ultimately, this happens because learning a new language is like giving our brain the ability to interpret the world differently – including the way we see and process colours.


     10级    双语 


    1 physically [ˈfɪzɪkli] iNix5   第8级
    • He was out of sorts physically, as well as disordered mentally. 他浑身不舒服,心绪也很乱。
    • Every time I think about it I feel physically sick. 一想起那件事我就感到极恶心。
    2 cones [kəʊnz] 1928ec03844308f65ae62221b11e81e3   第8级
    n.(人眼)圆锥细胞;圆锥体( cone的名词复数 );球果;圆锥形东西;(盛冰淇淋的)锥形蛋卷筒
    • In the pines squirrels commonly chew off and drop entire cones. 松树上的松鼠通常咬掉和弄落整个球果。 来自辞典例句
    • Many children would rather eat ice cream from cones than from dishes. 许多小孩喜欢吃蛋卷冰淇淋胜过盘装冰淇淋。 来自辞典例句
    3 density [ˈdensəti] rOdzZ   第7级
    • The population density of that country is 685 per square mile. 那个国家的人口密度为每平方英里685人。
    • The region has a very high population density. 该地区的人口密度很高。
    4 subjective [səbˈdʒektɪv] mtOwP   第7级
    • The way they interpreted their past was highly subjective. 他们解释其过去的方式太主观。
    • A literary critic should not be too subjective in his approach. 文学评论家的看法不应太主观。
    5 prone [prəʊn] 50bzu   第7级
    • Some people are prone to jump to hasty conclusions. 有些人往往作出轻率的结论。
    • He is prone to lose his temper when people disagree with him. 人家一不同意他的意见,他就发脾气。
    6 terminology [ˌtɜ:mɪˈnɒlədʒi] spmwD   第9级
    • He particularly criticized the terminology in the document. 他特别批评了文件中使用的术语。
    • The article uses rather specialized musical terminology. 这篇文章用了相当专业的音乐术语。
    7 discriminate [dɪˈskrɪmɪneɪt] NuhxX   第7级
    • You must learn to discriminate between facts and opinions. 你必须学会把事实和看法区分出来。
    • They can discriminate hundreds of colours. 他们能分辨上百种颜色。
    8 hues [hju:z] adb36550095392fec301ed06c82f8920   第10级
    色彩( hue的名词复数 ); 色调; 信仰; 观点
    • When the sun rose a hundred prismatic hues were reflected from it. 太阳一出,更把它映得千变万化、异彩缤纷。
    • Where maple trees grow, the leaves are often several brilliant hues of red. 在枫树生长的地方,枫叶常常呈现出数种光彩夺目的红色。
    9 spectrum [ˈspektrəm] Trhy6   第7级
    • This is a kind of atomic spectrum. 这是一种原子光谱。
    • We have known much of the constitution of the solar spectrum. 关于太阳光谱的构成,我们已了解不少。
    10 glossed [glɔ:st] 4df0fb546674680c16a9b0d5fffac46c   第10级
    v.注解( gloss的过去式和过去分词 );掩饰(错误);粉饰;把…搪塞过去
    • The manager glossed over the team's recent defeat. 经理对这个队最近的失败闪烁其词。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    • He glossed over his selfishness with a display of generosity. 他以慷慨大方的假象掩饰他的自私。 来自互联网
    11 lighter [ˈlaɪtə(r)] 5pPzPR   第8级
    • The portrait was touched up so as to make it lighter. 这张画经过润色,色调明朗了一些。
    • The lighter works off the car battery. 引燃器利用汽车蓄电池打火。
    12 texture [ˈtekstʃə(r)] kpmwQ   第7级
    • We could feel the smooth texture of silk. 我们能感觉出丝绸的光滑质地。
    • Her skin has a fine texture. 她的皮肤细腻。
    13 functional [ˈfʌŋkʃənl] 5hMxa   第8级
    • The telephone was out of order, but is functional now. 电话刚才坏了,但现在可以用了。
    • The furniture is not fancy, just functional. 这些家具不是摆着好看的,只是为了实用。
    14 remarkably [ri'mɑ:kəbli] EkPzTW   第7级
    • I thought she was remarkably restrained in the circumstances. 我认为她在那种情况下非常克制。
    • He made a remarkably swift recovery. 他康复得相当快。

    文章评论 共有评论 0查看全部