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添加时间:2022-10-13 16:07:12 浏览次数: 作者:未知
  • Advances in artificial intelligence and machine learning have sparked interest from governments that would like to use these tools for predictive policing to deter1 crime. However, early efforts at crime prediction have been controversial, because they do not account for systemic biases2 in police enforcement and its complex relationship with crime and society.


    University of Chicago data and social scientists have developed a new algorithm that forecasts crime by learning patterns in time and geographic4 locations from public data on violent and property crimes. It has demonstrated success at predicting future crimes one week in advance with approximately 90% accuracy.


    The new study was published on June 30, 2022, in the journal Nature Human Behavior.

    该研究论文于2022年6月30日发表在《自然——人类行为》杂志上The new tool was tested and validated5 using historical data from the City of Chicago around two broad categories of reported events: violent crimes (homicides, assaults and batteries) and property crimes (burglaries, thefts, and motor vehicle thefts).


    The new model isolates6 crime by looking at the time and spatial7 coordinates8 of discrete9 events and detecting patterns to predict future events. It divides the city into spatial tiles roughly 1,000 feet across and predicts crime within these areas instead of relying on traditional neighborhood or political boundaries, which are also subject to bias3. The model performed just as well with data from seven other US cities: Atlanta, Austin, Detroit, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Portland, and San Francisco.


    Ishanu Chattopadhyay, Assistant Professor of Medicine at UChicago and senior author of the study, is careful to note that the tool’s accuracy does not mean that it should be used to direct law enforcement, with police departments using it to swarm10 neighborhoods proactively to prevent crime. Instead, it should be added to a toolbox of urban policies and policing strategies to address crime.


    “We created a digital twin of urban environments. If you feed it data from happened in the past, it will tell you what’s going to happen in future. It’s not magical, there are limitations, but we validated it and it works really well,” Chattopadhyay said. “Now you can use this as a simulation tool to see what happens if crime goes up in one area of the city, or there is increased enforcement in another area. If you apply all these different variables, you can see how the systems evolves in response.”


     9级    双语 


    1 deter [dɪˈtɜ:(r)] DmZzU   第9级
    • Failure did not deter us from trying it again. 失败并没有能阻挡我们再次进行试验。
    • Dogs can deter unwelcome intruders. 狗能够阻拦不受欢迎的闯入者。
    2 biases [ˈbaiəsiz] a1eb9034f18cae637caab5279cc70546   第7级
    偏见( bias的名词复数 ); 偏爱; 特殊能力; 斜纹
    • Stereotypes represent designer or researcher biases and assumptions, rather than factual data. 它代表设计师或者研究者的偏见和假设,而不是实际的数据。 来自About Face 3交互设计精髓
    • The net effect of biases on international comparisons is easily summarized. 偏差对国际比较的基本影响容易概括。
    3 bias [ˈbaɪəs] 0QByQ   第7级
    • They are accusing the teacher of political bias in his marking. 他们在指控那名教师打分数有政治偏见。
    • He had a bias toward the plan. 他对这项计划有偏见。
    4 geographic [ˌdʒi:ə'ɡræfɪk] tgsxb   第7级
    • The city's success owes much to its geographic position. 这座城市的成功很大程度上归功于它的地理位置。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    • Environmental problems pay no heed to these geographic lines. 环境问题并不理会这些地理界限。 来自英汉非文学 - 环境法 - 环境法
    5 validated [ˈvælɪˌdeɪtid] c9e825f4641cd3bec0ba01a0c2d67755   第8级
    v.证实( validate的过去式和过去分词 );确证;使生效;使有法律效力
    • Time validated our suspicion. 时间证实了我们的怀疑。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
    • The decade of history since 1927 had richly validated their thesis. 1927年以来的十年的历史,充分证明了他们的论点。 来自辞典例句
    6 isolates ['aɪsəleɪts] 338356f90b44ba66febab4a4c173b0f7   第7级
    v.使隔离( isolate的第三人称单数 );将…剔出(以便看清和单独处理);使(某物质、细胞等)分离;使离析
    • The transformer isolates the transistors with regard to d-c bias voltage. 变压器可在两个晶体管之间隔离直流偏压。 来自辞典例句
    • In regions with certain isolates of TRV, spraining is more prominent. 在具有TRV某些分离物的地区,坏死是比较显著的。 来自辞典例句
    7 spatial [ˈspeɪʃl] gvcww   第7级
    • This part of brain judges the spatial relationship between objects. 大脑的这部分判断物体间的空间关系。
    • They said that time is the feeling of spatial displacement. 他们说时间是空间位移的感觉。
    8 coordinates [kə'ʊɔ:dənəts] 8387d77faaaa65484f5631d9f9d20bfc   第7级
    n.相配之衣物;坐标( coordinate的名词复数 );(颜色协调的)配套服装;[复数]女套服;同等重要的人(或物)v.使协调,使调和( coordinate的第三人称单数 );协调;协同;成为同等
    • The town coordinates on this map are 695037. 该镇在这幅地图上的坐标是695037。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    • The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, headed by the Emergency Relief Coordinator, coordinates all UN emergency relief. 联合国人道主义事务协调厅在紧急救济协调员领导下,负责协调联合国的所有紧急救济工作。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    9 discrete [dɪˈskri:t] 1Z5zn   第7级
    • The picture consists of a lot of discrete spots of colour. 这幅画由许多不相连的色点组成。
    • Most staple fibers are discrete, individual entities. 大多数短纤维是不联系的单独实体。
    10 swarm [swɔ:m] dqlyj   第7级
    • There is a swarm of bees in the tree. 这树上有一窝蜜蜂。
    • A swarm of ants are moving busily. 一群蚂蚁正在忙碌地搬家。

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