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为什么会怕蛇?
添加时间:2017-11-02 09:46:51 浏览次数: 作者:未知
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  • If the thought of a snake slithering around your feet or a spider walking up your arm sends shivers down your spine1, despite never having come into contact with one in real life, then it could be your genes2 that are to blame. Over the last few decades there has been much debate between scientists about whether these phobias are innate3 or are learned during childhood.

    如果一想到蛇在你的脚边游动或是蜘蛛在你的胳膊上爬来爬去你就感到脊椎发凉(尽管在现实生活中你从未接触过),那这可能是基因作祟。过去几十年,科学家一直在争论:这些恐惧症究竟是天生的还是在儿童时期通过学习得到的?

    But a new study has discovered that it is in fact hereditary4, as babies at only six months old (long before they have had a chance to learn about the dangers of spiders and snakes) show signs of stress when they see these creatures.

    但一项新研究发现,事实上这是遗传得来的,6个月大的宝宝(早在他们有机会了解蛇和蜘蛛非常危险之前)在看到蛇或者蜘蛛时都会表现出压力。

    It is estimated that the UK alone there are over 10 million people living with phobias, and ophidiophobia (fear of snakes) and arachnophobia (fear of spiders) always top the list of the most common concerns, according to a YouGov survey.

    据一项YouGov调查表示,据估计,仅英国就有超过1000万人患有恐惧症,恐蛇症和恐蜘蛛症总是位列恐惧症的榜首。

    Now a team at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive5 and Brain Sciences in Sweden have concluded that it isn’t because we are taught to fear them after birth. In the trial, they showed a group of babies images of spiders and snakes alongside flowers and fish - all the same size and in the same colour.

    位于瑞典的马克斯•普朗克人类认知和脑科学研究院的一个团队得出结论:对蛇和蜘蛛的恐惧并不是因为出生后别人教会我们的。在实验中,研究人员给一群宝宝看蜘蛛、蛇以及鲜花与鱼的图片——都是同样的尺寸、同样的颜色。

    When the child’s gaze rested upon the snake or spider, rather than the other animals, their pupils enlarged significantly - a classic physiological6 signpost that a human is experiencing internal stress.

    当宝宝的视线落在蛇或蜘蛛而非其它动物图片上时,他们的瞳孔明显放大——这是人类正在经历内在压力的典型生理指标。

    Stefanie Hoehl, lead investigator7, said: “In constant light conditions this change in size of the pupils is an important signal for the activation8 of the noradrenergic system in the brain, which is responsible for stress reactions. Accordingly, even the youngest babies seem to be stressed by these groups of animals.”

    首席研究员斯蒂芬妮•赫厄说道:“在不变的光照条件下,瞳孔大小的变化是大脑去甲肾上腺素被激活的重要信号,去甲肾上腺素是造成压力反应的原因。因此,即使是刚出生的宝宝也会因为这两种动物而感到压力。”

    And it would be hard to argue that as a relative newborn, who is immobile, that they had had a chance to learn to be scared of spiders or snakes. Instead they argue that this is an evolutionary9 development, and similar to primates10, mechanisms11 in the human brain have had to develop to react very quickly to these potentially dangerous threats.

    而我们都很清楚,作为一个动不了的新生儿,他们并没有机会去学会害怕蜘蛛或蛇。所以有人认为这是一个进化的发展,与灵长类动物相似,人类的大脑机制不得不发展,以快速应对这些潜在的危险。

     11级    英语科普 


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    1 spine [spaɪn] lFQzT   第7级
    n.脊柱,脊椎;(动植物的)刺;书脊
    参考例句:
    • He broke his spine in a fall from a horse. 他从马上跌下摔断了脊梁骨。
    • His spine developed a slight curve. 他的脊柱有点弯曲。
    2 genes [dʒi:nz] 01914f8eac35d7e14afa065217edd8c0   第7级
    n.基因( gene的名词复数 )
    参考例句:
    • You have good genes from your parents, so you should live a long time. 你从父母那儿获得优良的基因,所以能够活得很长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    • Differences will help to reveal the functions of the genes. 它们间的差异将会帮助我们揭开基因多种功能。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 生物技术的世纪
    3 innate [ɪˈneɪt] xbxzC   第7级
    adj.天生的,固有的,天赋的
    参考例句:
    • You obviously have an innate talent for music. 你显然有天生的音乐才能。
    • Correct ideas are not innate in the mind. 人的正确思想不是自己头脑中固有的。
    4 hereditary [həˈredɪtri] fQJzF   第8级
    adj.遗传的,遗传性的,可继承的,世袭的
    参考例句:
    • The Queen of England is a hereditary ruler. 英国女王是世袭的统治者。
    • In men, hair loss is hereditary. 男性脱发属于遗传。
    5 cognitive [ˈkɒgnətɪv] Uqwz0   第7级
    adj.认知的,认识的,有感知的
    参考例句:
    • As children grow older, their cognitive processes become sharper. 孩子们越长越大,他们的认知过程变得更为敏锐。
    • The cognitive psychologist is like the tinker who wants to know how a clock works. 认知心理学者倒很像一个需要通晓钟表如何运转的钟表修理匠。
    6 physiological [ˌfɪzɪə'lɒdʒɪkl] aAvyK   第7级
    adj.生理学的,生理学上的
    参考例句:
    • He bought a physiological book. 他买了一本生理学方面的书。
    • Every individual has a physiological requirement for each nutrient. 每个人对每种营养成分都有一种生理上的需要。
    7 investigator [ɪnˈvestɪgeɪtə(r)] zRQzo   第9级
    n.研究者,调查者,审查者
    参考例句:
    • He was a special investigator for the FBI. 他是联邦调查局的特别调查员。
    • The investigator was able to deduce the crime and find the criminal. 调查者能够推出犯罪过程并锁定罪犯。
    8 activation [ˌæktɪ'veɪʃn] 24eed33ee38027d124839f0fcdf6adcb   第7级
    n. 激活,催化作用
    参考例句:
    • A computer controls the activation of an air bag.电脑控制着气囊的启动。
    9 evolutionary [ˌi:vəˈlu:ʃənri] Ctqz7m   第9级
    adj.进化的;演化的,演变的;[生]进化论的
    参考例句:
    • Life has its own evolutionary process. 生命有其自身的进化过程。
    • These are fascinating questions to be resolved by the evolutionary studies of plants. 这些十分吸引人的问题将在研究植物进化过程中得以解决。
    10 primates [prai'meiti:z] 9536f12c27d026e37c108bd6fc53dbba   第8级
    primate的复数
    参考例句:
    • Primates are alert, inquisitive animals. 灵长目动物是机灵、好奇的动物。
    • Consciousness or cerebration has been said to have emerged in the evolution of higher primates. 据说意识或思考在较高级灵长类的进化中已出现。
    11 mechanisms ['mekənɪzəmz] d0db71d70348ef1c49f05f59097917b8   第7级
    n.机械( mechanism的名词复数 );机械装置;[生物学] 机制;机械作用
    参考例句:
    • The research will provide direct insight into molecular mechanisms. 这项研究将使人能够直接地了解分子的机理。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    • He explained how the two mechanisms worked. 他解释这两台机械装置是如何工作的。 来自《简明英汉词典》

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