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当前位置:首页 -> 9级英语阅读 - > 技术与全球化冲击好工作
添加时间:2018-03-02 20:08:29 浏览次数: 作者:未知
  • “Highest stock market EVER! Jobs are roaring back!” boasted Donald Trump1 in a tweet in December. The US president is the most prominent advocate of the idea that quantity is almost all that counts when it comes to jobs.

    “史上最高位的股市!就业强劲回归!”唐纳德?特朗普(Donald Trump)去年12月发推文夸口称。主张在就业方面数量几乎就是一切这种观点的人中,这位美国总统是最著名的一位。

    But job numbers alone are an increasingly crude barometer2 of economic health. For workers under pressure from changing technology and globalisation, a new measure is required, based on job quality as much as job quantity.


    More subtle politicians have been quick to realise this. Philip Hammond, UK chancellor3 of the exchequer4, referred in his Budget speech in November to a “relentless5 focus on getting more people into work”. But he added the condition that such work should be “good quality and well paid”.

    比较敏锐的政客们很快就意识到了这一点。在去年11月的预算演讲中,英国财政大臣菲利普?哈蒙德(Philip Hammond)提到了“要持续关注于让更多的人有工作”。但他补充了前提条件,即这些工作应该是“质量好、薪酬丰厚的”。

    A few days later, the UK government laid out four “grand challenges” of its industrial strategy, including the promotion6 of artificial intelligence. “Embedding7 AI across the UK will create thousands of good quality jobs and drive economic growth,” the strategy document insisted.


    Recent history suggests the UK may be indulging in some wishful thinking. Automation is one of the forces identified by David Autor of MIT as squeezing out “good jobs” — the middle-skilled roles to which “ordinary working people” (to use the politicians’ mantra) would aspire8.

    近年来的情况表明,英国政府可能想得过于美好了。麻省理工学院(MIT)的戴维?奥特尔(David Autor)认为自动化是把“好工作”排挤掉的力量之一。这里说的“好工作”,是指“普通劳动人民”(这里借用政客们的说法)所向往的中等技能工作岗位。

    Globalisation is another such pressure. The remainder of the workforce9 is polarising into high-level managerial and professional posts and low-tier service jobs. Such good jobs as survive demand ever more sophisticated skills.


    For managers who hold on to their positions, this poses new tests. Rick Wartzman, whose book The End of Loyalty10 is subtitled “The Rise and Fall of Good Jobs in America”, says the challenge starts with whether to cut jobs, or find ways to reposition staff for the automation revolution.

    对于保住职位的经理们来说,这将带来新考验。《忠诚不再》(The End of Loyalty)的作者瑞克?沃兹曼(Rick Wartzman)说,挑战始于是削减工作岗位,还是想办法重新安排员工的岗位,以适应自动化革命。那本书的副标题是“美国好工作的兴衰”(The Rise and Fall of Good Jobs in America)。

    “Management is about making these kinds of decisions,” he told me. For instance, “[how] to put people, or combinations of people and technology, in the right position to maximise effectiveness. Doing an across-the-board cost-cutting exercise isn’t management.”


    The Brookings Institution recently looked at 14m “good jobs” in the US and found that their “digital score” — based on the knowledge, skills and tools needed to fulfil those roles — had risen from 29 to 50 between 2002 and 2016, out of a possible score of 100 for the most “digitally intense” occupations. In other words, basic digital skills are now a prerequisite11 for positions — mechanic, nurse, builder — which traditionally open the door to advancement12 for the two-thirds of Americans who lack a college degree.

    不久前,布鲁金斯学会(Brookings Institution)在研究美国的1400万份“好工作”后发现,这些好工作的“数字技能分数”——基于履行这些职务所需的知识、技能和工具——从2002年的29分上升到2016年的50分。最高分100分,为“数字密集度”最高的职位。换言之,具备基本数字技能已成为从事技工、护士、建筑工等职位的一个先决条件,而传统上,干这类工作的未取得大学学历的美国人中,有三分之二的人有升职机会。

    The same challenge is multiplied by many millions in populous13, fast-growing countries such as India. One Indian manufacturing tycoon14 I met just shrugged15 when I asked whether he felt any responsibility to the staff he would have to lay off as he installed more sophisticated machines in his factories. His response was just one indication that digitalisation could slam the door in the face of many young Indians, who are counting on basic literacy and numeracy to open up decent production line jobs.


    Sometimes, a lack of such skills also blights16 the future of people forced out of good jobs. In Amy Goldstein’s book Janesville , workers laid off by General Motors flocked to the Wisconsin town’s college to retrain, only for their teachers to discover that some “didn’t even know how to turn [a computer] on”.

    有时,缺乏此类技能也会毁掉那些丢掉好工作的人们的未来。在埃米?戈尔茨坦(Amy Goldstein)的著作《简斯维尔》(Janesville)中,被通用汽车公司(General Motors)解雇的员工蜂拥至这个威斯康星州城镇的大学进行再培训,结果他们的老师却发现有些人“甚至不会开机(电脑)”。

    One responsibility of future managers is to ensure that this ground-level digital education is made available. “The next phase of the digital skills push needs to add a new, less-glamorous focus on IT basics such as Microsoft Office and basic customer relationship management (CRM) software to the cooler agenda of scaling up the code schools,” Brookings fellow Mark Muro wrote in a blogpost about the think-tank’s report.

    未来管理者的职责之一是确保员工有机会获得这种基础数字教育。“推广数字技能的下一阶段,需要在增加编程学校的高大上议程之外,加上一个新的、不那么迷人的关注点:微软Office等IT基础知识和基本的客户关系管理(CRM)软件,”布鲁金斯学会研究员马克?穆罗(Mark Muro)在一篇关于该智库报告的博文中写道。

    The model, says Wartzman, needs to change to one in which managers offer staff opportunities for lifelong learning. Ideally, this should happen on the job, rather than after redundancy, when the efficacy of retraining may be undermined by the general lack of opportunities, as happened to Janesville’s unemployed17 car workers in the depths of the 2008-09 recession.


    The last resort may be to find ways to change the status of what used to be considered poor jobs. In Taiwan, the government successfully improved urban cleanliness by upgrading the “bad job” of street cleaning. It now comes with a salary close to the national average and a decent pension. Public competitions pit “clean teams” from different districts against each other.


    It is an idiosyncratic example, but it underlines a point that Trump may want to consider. Creating more jobs is a fine goal; creating better jobs is even finer.


     9级    双语 


    1 trump [trʌmp] LU1zK   第10级
    • He was never able to trump up the courage to have a showdown. 他始终鼓不起勇气摊牌。
    • The coach saved his star player for a trump card. 教练保留他的明星选手,作为他的王牌。
    2 barometer [bəˈrɒmɪtə(r)] fPLyP   第8级
    • The barometer marked a continuing fall in atmospheric pressure. 气压表表明气压在继续下降。
    • The arrow on the barometer was pointing to "stormy". 气压计上的箭头指向“有暴风雨”。
    3 chancellor ['tʃɑ:nsələ(r)] aUAyA   第7级
    • They submitted their reports to the Chancellor yesterday. 他们昨天向财政大臣递交了报告。
    • He was regarded as the most successful Chancellor of modern times. 他被认为是现代最成功的财政大臣。
    4 exchequer [ɪksˈtʃekə(r)] VnxxT   第12级
    • In Britain the Chancellor of the Exchequer deals with taxes and government spending. 英国的财政大臣负责税务和政府的开支。
    • This resulted in a considerable loss to the exchequer. 这使国库遭受了重大损失。
    5 relentless [rɪˈlentləs] VBjzv   第8级
    • The traffic noise is relentless. 交通车辆的噪音一刻也不停止。
    • Their training has to be relentless. 他们的训练必须是无情的。
    6 promotion [prəˈməʊʃn] eRLxn   第7级
    • The teacher conferred with the principal about Dick's promotion. 教师与校长商谈了迪克的升级问题。
    • The clerk was given a promotion and an increase in salary. 那个职员升了级,加了薪。
    7 embedding [ɪm'bedɪŋ] 91dcd46b7c7d960c321ddb6c8b0ce5d1   第7级
    把…嵌入,埋入( embed的现在分词 ); 植入; 埋置; 包埋
    • Data embedding in scrambled Digital video complete source code, has been tested. 数据嵌入在炒数字视频完整的源代码,已经过测试。
    • Embedding large portions of C++ code in string literals is very awkward. 将大部分C++代码嵌入到字符串中是非常笨拙的。
    8 aspire [əˈspaɪə(r)] ANbz2   第7级
    • Living together with you is what I aspire toward in my life. 和你一起生活是我一生最大的愿望。
    • I aspire to be an innovator not a follower. 我迫切希望能变成个开创者而不是跟随者。
    9 workforce [ˈwɜ:kfɔ:s] workforce   第8级
    • A large part of the workforce is employed in agriculture. 劳动人口中一大部分受雇于农业。
    • A quarter of the local workforce is unemployed. 本地劳动力中有四分之一失业。
    10 loyalty [ˈlɔɪəlti] gA9xu   第7级
    • She told him the truth from a sense of loyalty. 她告诉他真相是出于忠诚。
    • His loyalty to his friends was never in doubt. 他对朋友的一片忠心从来没受到怀疑。
    11 prerequisite [ˌpri:ˈrekwəzɪt] yQCxu   第9级
    • Stability and unity are a prerequisite to the four modernizations. 安定团结是实现四个现代化的前提。
    • It is a prerequisite of entry to the profession that you pass the exams. 做这一行的先决条件是要通过了有关的考试。
    12 advancement [ədˈvɑ:nsmənt] tzgziL   第8级
    • His new contribution to the advancement of physiology was well appreciated. 他对生理学发展的新贡献获得高度赞赏。
    • The aim of a university should be the advancement of learning. 大学的目标应是促进学术。
    13 populous [ˈpɒpjələs] 4ORxV   第9级
    • London is the most populous area of Britain. 伦敦是英国人口最稠密的地区。
    • China is the most populous developing country in the world. 中国是世界上人口最多的发展中国家。
    14 tycoon [taɪˈku:n] EKkze   第10级
    • The tycoon is on the verge of bankruptcy. 那名大亨濒临破产的边缘。
    • The tycoon has many servants to minister to his needs. 那位大亨有很多人服侍他。
    15 shrugged [ʃ'rʌɡd] 497904474a48f991a3d1961b0476ebce   第7级
    • Sam shrugged and said nothing. 萨姆耸耸肩膀,什么也没说。
    • She shrugged, feigning nonchalance. 她耸耸肩,装出一副无所谓的样子。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    16 blights [blaɪts] dfc4191d6f7a4377123865e38fb444b0   第10级
    使凋萎( blight的第三人称单数 ); 使颓丧; 损害; 妨害
    • The crops suffered from frequent blights. 农作物经常遭受病虫害。
    • New England was accustomed to didacticism in its literature, and unmitigated didacticism blights the novel. 新英格兰习惯于在文学里说教,可是一味说教,小说就要完蛋。
    17 unemployed [ˌʌnɪmˈplɔɪd] lfIz5Q   第7级
    • There are now over four million unemployed workers in this country. 这个国家现有四百万失业人员。
    • The unemployed hunger for jobs. 失业者渴望得到工作。

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