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添加时间:2018-03-03 19:51:01 浏览次数: 作者:未知
  • Instead of gulping1 your food, try eating more slowly.It may help you drop those unwanted pounds, a new study by Japanese researchers suggests.


    Also helpful: Avoiding after-dinner snacks and eating anything in the two hours before you go to bed, the researchers said.


    The study linked those simple changes to a smaller waist, and lower rates of obesity2 and overweight.


    Compared with people who gobbled their food, those who ate at a normal speed were 29 percent less likely to be obese3.But those who ate slowly were up to 42 percent less likely to be obese.


    In addition, slow eaters tended to be healthier and to have a healthier lifestyle than those who ate quickly or at a normal speed.


    This study could not, however, prove that eating speed causes or prevents obesity, only that it appears to be associated, the researchers noted4.They were led by Dr. Haruhisa Fukuda from the Department of Health Care Administration and Management at Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences in Fukuoka, Japan.


    But, eating slowly may very well play a role in curbing5 obesity, said Dr. David Katz, director of the Yale-Griffin Prevention Research Center in Derby, Conn.He had no part in the study.

    但是,位于康涅狄格州德比的耶鲁-格里芬预防研究中心主任 David Katz 博士说,慢慢地吃东西很可能会在控制肥胖方面起到一定作用。尽管他没有参与这项研究。

    Practices that impose some mindfulness and discipline on eating may help with both losing weight and staying healthy, Katz said.He’s also president of the American College of Lifestyle Medicine.

    兼任美国生活方式医学学院院长的 David Katz说:“那些在饮食上施加一些专注力和自制力的做法可能有助于减肥和保持健康。”

    Slow eating is characteristic of a more mindful approach.Food choice is more conscious, and eating is appreciated for quality rather than just quantity, he said.


    Avoiding food in the hours just before sleep also suggests a more thoughtful approach to diet that involves some reasonable constraints7, Katz said.


    The research team’s findings came from analysis of health insurance data on nearly 60,000 Japanese residents with diabetes8 who had made insurance claims and had regular checkups between 2008 and 2013.


    The checkups included weight and waist size measurements and the results of blood, urine and liver function tests.Participants also were asked about their lifestyle, including eating and sleep habits and alcohol and tobacco use.


    At the start of the study, more than 22,000 people routinely ate quickly, while nearly 33,500 ate at a normal speed and almost 4,200 ate more slowly.


    Although reductions in waist size -- a sign of a potentially harmful midriff bulge9 -- were small, they were greater among those who ate slowly or at normal speed, the study found.


    Snacking after dinner and eating within two hours of going to sleep also were linked to changes in weight.Skipping breakfast was not.


    Previous research has linked eating quickly to impaired10 glucose11 tolerance12 and insulin resistance.The study suggested that this might be because fast eaters consume more food before feeling full.


    Slow eaters, however, become aware of feeling full before they’ve consumed too much.


    Slow eating has its pros13 and a few cons6, said Samantha Heller, a senior clinical nutritionist at New York University Medical Center in New York City.

    纽约大学医学中心的资深临床营养师Samantha Heller说:“慢食既有优点也有缺点。”

    On the one hand, slow eating gives our bodies time to register a sense of satisfaction and fullness, so we tend to eat less, she said.


    We are more likely to savor14 the taste, texture15, subtle flavors and mouth feel of foods, said Heller, who was not involved with the study."Research suggests that slow eaters consume fewer calories, have increased feelings of fullness and a decreased sense of hunger."


    On the other hand, the longer some people linger with food in front of them, the more they eat, she said.


    That said, speed eating appears to be far more deleterious, Heller said."People who speed eat, as many of us do, scarf down far more calories than they need."


    Eating quickly has been associated with a higher risk for obesity, cardiovascular disease and metabolic16 syndrome17, Heller said.


    In many European countries, slow eating is a way of life, she said."In America, speed eating takes the lead.Thus, we need to encourage a cultural shift to adopting an approach of slower eating and a true enjoyment of food."


    The study was published online Feb. 12 in the journal BMJ Open.


     10级    英文科普 


    1 gulping [ɡʌlpɪŋ] 0d120161958caa5168b07053c2b2fd6e   第8级
    v.狼吞虎咽地吃,吞咽( gulp的现在分词 );大口地吸(气);哽住
    • She crawled onto the river bank and lay there gulping in air. 她爬上河岸,躺在那里喘着粗气。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    • And you'll even feel excited gulping down a glass. 你甚至可以感觉到激动下一杯。 来自互联网
    2 obesity [əʊ'bi:sətɪ] Dv1ya   第8级
    • One effect of overeating may be obesity. 吃得过多能导致肥胖。
    • Sugar and fat can more easily lead to obesity than some other foods. 糖和脂肪比其他食物更容易导致肥胖。
    3 obese [əʊˈbi:s] uvIya   第8级
    • The old man is really obese, it can't be healthy. 那位老人确实过于肥胖了,不能算是健康。
    • Being obese and lazy is dangerous to health. 又胖又懒危害健康。
    4 noted [ˈnəʊtɪd] 5n4zXc   第8级
    • The local hotel is noted for its good table. 当地的那家酒店以餐食精美而著称。
    • Jim is noted for arriving late for work. 吉姆上班迟到出了名。
    5 curbing ['kɜ:bɪŋ] 8c36e8e7e184a75aca623e404655efad   第7级
    n.边石,边石的材料v.限制,克制,抑制( curb的现在分词 )
    • Progress has been made in curbing inflation. 在控制通货膨胀方面已取得了进展。
    • A range of policies have been introduced aimed at curbing inflation. 为了抑制通货膨胀实施了一系列的政策。
    6 cons [kɔnz] eec38a6d10735a91d1247a80b5e213a6   第7级
    n.欺骗,骗局( con的名词复数 )v.诈骗,哄骗( con的第三人称单数 )
    • The pros and cons cancel out. 正反两种意见抵消。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
    • We should hear all the pros and cons of the matter before we make a decision. 我们在对这事做出决定之前,应该先听取正反两方面的意见。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    7 constraints [kən'streɪnt] d178923285d63e9968956a0a4758267e   第7级
    强制( constraint的名词复数 ); 限制; 约束
    • Data and constraints can easily be changed to test theories. 信息库中的数据和限制条件可以轻易地改变以检验假设。 来自英汉非文学 - 科学史
    • What are the constraints that each of these imply for any design? 这每种产品的要求和约束对于设计意味着什么? 来自About Face 3交互设计精髓
    8 diabetes [ˌdaɪəˈbi:ti:z] uPnzu   第9级
    • In case of diabetes, physicians advise against the use of sugar. 对于糖尿病患者,医生告诫他们不要吃糖。
    • Diabetes is caused by a fault in the insulin production of the body. 糖尿病是由体內胰岛素分泌失调引起的。
    9 bulge [bʌldʒ] Ns3ze   第8级
    • The apple made a bulge in his pocket. 苹果把他口袋塞得鼓了起来。
    • What's that awkward bulge in your pocket? 你口袋里那块鼓鼓囊囊的东西是什么?
    10 impaired [ɪm'peəd] sqtzdr   第7级
    adj.受损的;出毛病的;有(身体或智力)缺陷的v.损害,削弱( impair的过去式和过去分词 )
    • Much reading has impaired his vision. 大量读书损害了他的视力。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
    • His hearing is somewhat impaired. 他的听觉已受到一定程度的损害。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
    11 glucose [ˈglu:kəʊs] Fyiyz   第11级
    • I gave him an extra dose of glucose to pep him up. 我给他多注射了一剂葡萄糖以增强他的活力。
    • The doctor injected glucose into his patient's veins. 医生将葡萄糖注入病人的静脉。
    12 tolerance [ˈtɒlərəns] Lnswz   第7级
    • Tolerance is one of his strengths. 宽容是他的一个优点。
    • Human beings have limited tolerance of noise. 人类对噪音的忍耐力有限。
    13 pros [prəʊz] pros   第8级
    abbr.prosecuting 起诉;prosecutor 起诉人;professionals 自由职业者;proscenium (舞台)前部n.赞成的意见( pro的名词复数 );赞成的理由;抵偿物;交换物
    • The pros and cons cancel out. 正反两种意见抵消。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
    • We should hear all the pros and cons of the matter before we make a decision. 我们在对这事做出决定之前,应该先听取正反两方面的意见。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    14 savor ['seɪvə] bCizT   第9级
    • The soup has a savor of onion. 这汤有洋葱味。
    • His humorous remarks added a savor to our conversation. 他幽默的话语给谈话增添了风趣。
    15 texture [ˈtekstʃə(r)] kpmwQ   第7级
    • We could feel the smooth texture of silk. 我们能感觉出丝绸的光滑质地。
    • Her skin has a fine texture. 她的皮肤细腻。
    16 metabolic [ˌmetə'bɒlɪk] 2R4z1   第11级
    • Impressive metabolic alternations have been undergone during embryogenesis. 在胚胎发生期间经历了深刻的代谢变化。
    • A number of intoxicants are associated with metabolic acidosis. 许多毒性物质可引起代谢性酸中毒。
    17 syndrome [ˈsɪndrəʊm] uqBwu   第7级
    • The Institute says that an unidentified virus is to blame for the syndrome. 该研究所表示,引起这种综合症的是一种尚未确认的病毒。
    • Results indicated that 11 fetuses had Down syndrome. 结果表明有11个胎儿患有唐氏综合征。

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