轻松背单词新浪微博 轻松背单词腾讯微博
当前位置:首页 -> 9级英语阅读 - > 研究发现:熟不一定能生巧
添加时间:2019-08-26 08:09:11 浏览次数: 作者:未知
  • With blatant1 disregard for the public benefits of motivational idioms, researchers have concluded that practice does not, necessarily, make perfect.


    A study of violinists found that merely good players practised as much as, if not more than, better players, leaving other factors such as quality of tuition, learning skills and perhaps natural talent to account for the difference.


    The work is the latest blow to the 10,000-hour rule, the idea promoted in Malcolm Gladwell's 2008 book, Outliers, which has been taken to mean that enough practice will make an expert of anyone. In the book, Gladwell states that "ten thousand hours is the magic number of greatness".


    "The idea has become really entrenched2 in our culture, but it's an oversimplification," said Brooke Macnamara, a psychologist at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. "When it comes to human skill, a complex combination of environmental factors, genetic3 factors and their interactions explains the performance differences across people."美国俄亥俄州克利夫兰凯斯西储大学的心理学家布鲁克·麦克纳马拉说:“熟能生巧的观点已经深深植根于我们的文化,但是这种观点过于简单化了。在人类技巧方面,要综合考虑环境、基因及其相互作用来解释人与人之间的表现差异。”

    The seed for the 10,000-hour rule was a 1993 study of violinists and pianists which found that accumulated practice time rose with musical prowess. On average, top-ranked violinists had clocked up 10,000 hours of practice by the age of 20, though many had actually put in fewer hours. In the study, the authors rejected an important role for natural talent and argued that differences in ability, even among top musicians, were largely down to how much they practised. Gladwell seized on the round number to explain the success of notables from Bill Gates to the Beatles.


    Macnamara and her colleague Megha Maitra set out to repeat part of the 1993 study to see whether they reached the same conclusions. They interviewed three groups of 13 violinists rated as best, good, or less accomplished4 about their practice habits, before having them complete daily diaries of their activities over a week.


    While the less skilful5 violinists clocked up an average of about 6,000 hours of practice by the age of 20, there was little to separate the good from the best musicians, with each logging an average of about 11,000 hours. In all, the number of hours spent practising accounted for about a quarter of the skills difference across the three groups, according to the study published in Royal Society Open Science.


    Macnamara believes practice is less of a driver. "Once you get to the highly skilled groups, practice stops accounting6 for the difference. Everyone has practised a lot and other factors are at play in determining who goes on to that super-elite level," she said.


    "The factors depend on the skill being learned: in chess it could be intelligence or working memory, in sport it may be how efficiently7 a person uses oxygen. To complicate8 matters further, one factor can drive another. A child who enjoys playing the violin, for example, may be happy to practise and be focused on the task because they do not see it as a chore."“这些因素依据学习的技能不同而发生改变:如果学的是国际象棋,决定因素可能是智力或工作记忆;如果学的是运动,决定因素可能是一个人利用氧气的效率。还有更复杂的情况是,有时候一个因素还会作用于另一个因素。举例而言,一个喜欢拉小提琴的孩子可能比较愿意练习,注意力也比较集中,因为他们不把练琴看成苦差。”

    The authors of the 1993 study are unimpressed, however. One co-author, Anders Ericsson, a psychologist at Florida State University, said the new paper actually replicated9 most of their findings. He said there were no objective differences between Macnamara's best and good violinists, so no surprise they put in the same amount of practice.


    Another co-author on the 1993 study, Ralf Krampe, a psychologist at the Catholic University of Leuven, said nothing in Macnamara's paper made him question the original findings. "Do I believe that practice is everything and that the number of hours alone determine the level reached? No, I don't," he said, adding that the quality of practice, teachers and parental10 support all matter too. "But I still consider deliberate practice to be by far the most important factor."1993年研究的另一位合著者、鲁汶天主教大学的心理学家拉尔夫·克兰佩说,麦克纳马拉的论文中没有任何能让他质疑原研究结果的内容。他说:“难道我认为练习就是一切,练习时长是决定成就的唯一因素吗?不,我不这么认为。”他补充道,练习质量、老师和父母的支持也很重要。“但我依然认为有意的练习是迄今为止最重要的因素。”

    Macnamara said it was important for people to understand the limits of practice, though. "Practice makes you better than you were yesterday, most of the time," she said. "But it might not make you better than your neighbour. Or the other kid in your violin class."麦克纳马拉说,尽管如此,让人们理解练习的局限性还是很重要。“大多数时候,练习都能让你超越过去的自己,”她说,“但练习可能无法让你超越你的邻居,或小提琴课上的其他孩子。”

     9级    双语 


    1 blatant [ˈbleɪtnt] ENCzP   第10级
    • I cannot believe that so blatant a comedy can hoodwink anybody. 我无法相信这么显眼的一出喜剧能够欺骗谁。
    • His treatment of his secretary was a blatant example of managerial arrogance. 他管理的傲慢作风在他对待秘书的态度上表露无遗。
    2 entrenched [ɪn'trentʃt] MtGzk8   第12级
    • Television seems to be firmly entrenched as the number one medium for national advertising. 电视看来要在全国广告媒介中牢固地占据头等位置。
    • If the enemy dares to attack us in these entrenched positions, we will make short work of them. 如果敌人胆敢进攻我们固守的阵地,我们就消灭他们。
    3 genetic [dʒəˈnetɪk] PgIxp   第7级
    • It's very difficult to treat genetic diseases. 遗传性疾病治疗起来很困难。
    • Each daughter cell can receive a full complement of the genetic information. 每个子细胞可以收到遗传信息的一个完全补偿物。
    4 accomplished [əˈkʌmplɪʃt] UzwztZ   第8级
    • Thanks to your help, we accomplished the task ahead of schedule. 亏得你们帮忙,我们才提前完成了任务。
    • Removal of excess heat is accomplished by means of a radiator. 通过散热器完成多余热量的排出。
    5 skilful [ˈskɪlfl] 8i2zDY   第8级
    • The more you practise, the more skilful you'll become. 练习的次数越多,熟练的程度越高。
    • He's not very skilful with his chopsticks. 他用筷子不大熟练。
    6 accounting [əˈkaʊntɪŋ] nzSzsY   第8级
    • A job fell vacant in the accounting department. 财会部出现了一个空缺。
    • There's an accounting error in this entry. 这笔账目里有差错。
    7 efficiently [ɪ'fɪʃntlɪ] ZuTzXQ   第8级
    • The worker oils the machine to operate it more efficiently. 工人给机器上油以使机器运转更有效。
    • Local authorities have to learn to allocate resources efficiently. 地方政府必须学会有效地分配资源。
    8 complicate [ˈkɒmplɪkeɪt] zX1yA   第8级
    • There is no need to complicate matters. 没有必要使问题复杂化。
    • These events will greatly complicate the situation. 这些事件将使局势变得极其复杂。
    9 replicated [ˈreplɪˌkeɪtid] 08069c56938bbf6ddcc01ee2fd848af5   第9级
    复制( replicate的过去式和过去分词 ); 重复; 再造; 再生
    • Later outplant the seedlings in a replicated permanent test plantation. 以后苗木出圃栽植成重复的永久性试验林。
    • The phage has replicated and the donor cells have lysed. 噬菌体已复制和给体细胞已发生裂解。
    10 parental [pəˈrentl] FL2xv   第9级
    • He encourages parental involvement in the running of school. 他鼓励学生家长参与学校的管理。
    • Children always revolt against parental disciplines. 孩子们总是反抗父母的管束。

    文章评论 共有评论 0查看全部