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添加时间:2019-09-11 08:16:25 浏览次数: 作者:未知
  • Why Dehydration1 Is Common in Older Adults


    The first, and perhaps most perplexing, cause of dehydration in older adults is a lack of thirst. During the aging process, thirst sensation naturally decreases, says Dr. Audrey Chun, vice2 chair of geriatric and palliative medicine outpatient services in the Mount Sinai Health System and director of Coffey Geriatrics at The Martha Stewart Center for Living at Mount Sinai Hospital.

    中老年人脱水的首要原因,也许也是最令人困惑的一个原因就是:他们不会感到口渴。在衰老过程中,口渴感会自然而然地降低,西奈山卫生系统老年姑息医学门诊服务部的副主席兼西奈山医院玛莎斯图尔特生活中心科菲老年医学部的主任奥黛丽·春(Audrey Chun)博士说道。

    While the mechanisms3 are not clear-cut, thirst levels in adults older than 65 are commonly far lower than indicative of the body's actual fluid needs. Because of this decreased thirst sensation, many adults do not drink as much as they did in their younger days, says Dr. Sanjay Kurani, medical director of inpatient medicine at Santa Clara Valley Medical Center in San Jose, California.

    虽然造成这一现象的原因尚不明确,但65岁以上老年人的口渴程度通常远低于其身体实际需要的饮水量。由于口渴感降低,很多成年人的饮水量也开始降低,远比不上年轻时候,加利福尼亚州圣何塞市圣塔克拉拉谷医疗中心的住院医学医疗主任桑杰·库拉尼(Sanjay Kurani)博士说道。

    Plus, throughout the aging process, the kidneys naturally lose some of their ability to conserve4 water and concentrate urine, leading to greater fluid losses through urination. A decline in muscle mass, referred to as sarcopenia, can also reduce how much water the body can store, as muscle functions as a significant holding area for water molecules5. One out of three adults age 60 and older suffers from severe muscle loss, according to a 2014 review published in Age and Ageing.

    此外,在整个衰老过程中,肾脏储水和浓缩尿的能力会逐渐地自然丧失,导致排尿时流失更多的水分。肌肉质量的下降,称为肌肉减少症,也会降低身体的储水量,因为肌肉是保持水分子的重要部位。2014年,Age and Ageing期刊上发表的一篇综述表示:60岁及以上的老年人中,三分之一的人患有严重的肌肉损失。

    Age-related health conditions can further predispose older adults to dehydration. Undiagnosed or uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes6 can increase urination, while urinary incontinence – and resulting anxieties – can cause a reduction in fluid consumption. Reduced mobility7 can cut down on how often people are willing to make trips to get water and use the restroom, Kurani says. People with Alzheimer's disease or dementia are also at an increased risk of not drinking enough water, according to 2018 research published in Nutrients8.


    What's more, commonly used over-the-counter and prescription9 medication can contribute to fluid losses as well. "Blood pressure medications such as diuretics are commonly associated with dehydration in the elderly," Kurani says. "Antihistamines10 and laxatives are also medications that can result in dehydration."此外,经常服用非处方药和处方药也会导致液体流失。“利尿剂等降压药通常与老年人脱水相关,”库拉尼说道。“抗组胺药和泻药也会导致脱水。”

     11级    双语 


    1 dehydration [ˌdi:haɪ'dreɪʃn] UYkzX   第11级
    • He died from severe dehydration. 他死于严重脱水。
    • The eyes are often retracted from dehydration. 眼睛常因脱水而凹陷。
    2 vice [vaɪs] NU0zQ   第7级
    • He guarded himself against vice. 他避免染上坏习惯。
    • They are sunk in the depth of vice. 他们堕入了罪恶的深渊。
    3 mechanisms ['mekənɪzəmz] d0db71d70348ef1c49f05f59097917b8   第7级
    n.机械( mechanism的名词复数 );机械装置;[生物学] 机制;机械作用
    • The research will provide direct insight into molecular mechanisms. 这项研究将使人能够直接地了解分子的机理。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    • He explained how the two mechanisms worked. 他解释这两台机械装置是如何工作的。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    4 conserve [kənˈsɜ:v] vYRyP   第8级
    • He writes on both sides of the sheet to conserve paper. 他在纸张的两面都写字以节省用纸。
    • Conserve your energy, you'll need it! 保存你的精力,你会用得着的!
    5 molecules ['mɒlɪkju:lz] 187c25e49d45ad10b2f266c1fa7a8d49   第7级
    分子( molecule的名词复数 )
    • The structure of molecules can be seen under an electron microscope. 分子的结构可在电子显微镜下观察到。
    • Inside the reactor the large molecules are cracked into smaller molecules. 在反应堆里,大分子裂变为小分子。
    6 diabetes [ˌdaɪəˈbi:ti:z] uPnzu   第9级
    • In case of diabetes, physicians advise against the use of sugar. 对于糖尿病患者,医生告诫他们不要吃糖。
    • Diabetes is caused by a fault in the insulin production of the body. 糖尿病是由体內胰岛素分泌失调引起的。
    7 mobility [məʊˈbɪləti] H6rzu   第8级
    • The difference in regional house prices acts as an obstacle to mobility of labour. 不同地区房价的差异阻碍了劳动力的流动。
    • Mobility is very important in guerrilla warfare. 机动性在游击战中至关重要。
    8 nutrients ['nju:trɪənts] 6a1e1ed248a3ac49744c39cc962fb607   第8级
    n.(食品或化学品)营养物,营养品( nutrient的名词复数 )
    • a lack of essential nutrients 基本营养的缺乏
    • Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream. 营养素被吸收进血液。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    9 prescription [prɪˈskrɪpʃn] u1vzA   第7级
    • The physician made a prescription against sea-sickness for him. 医生给他开了个治晕船的药方。
    • The drug is available on prescription only. 这种药只能凭处方购买。
    10 antihistamines [ænti:hɪs'tæmɪnz] e96a3a2c14b9079c545897dfcd69d4a0   第12级
    n.抗组织胺药( antihistamine的名词复数 )
    • Cough suppressants and some antihistamines may help quiet an annoying cough. 镇咳药和一些抗组织胺类药物能帮助驱除烦人的咳嗽。 来自互联网
    • Antihistamines are the medications most commonly used to diminish allergic symptoms. 抗组胺药是药物最常用的,以减少过敏症状。 来自互联网

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