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旅游英语:兵马俑 Terra Cotta Warriors
添加时间:2020-03-18 11:51:35 浏览次数: 作者:未知
  • Xi‘an, once the capital of eleven Chinese dynasties, is famous throughout the world for life-sized terra-cotta warriors1 and horses. They have won fame as one of the greatest archaeological2 finds of this century. Back in 1974, while digging a well to fight drought, some farmers from Lintong county, about thirty kilometers east of Xi‘an, unearthed4 some brown pottery5 fragments, which led to the great discovery of the executed terra-cotta legions as an exterior6 section of the mausoleum, of Qin Shi Huang or First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty (255-210B. C.)

    Details of Qin Shi Huang‘s tomb can be traced in The Historical Records (compiled by Sima Qian) and legends about it have been widespread. However, for technical reasons, the major part of the tomb remains7 unexcavated today with its mound9 still standing10 76 meters high against the slopes of Mt. Lishan and facing the Huishui River.

    After 20 years of careful excavation11 three underground vaults13 officially opened to the public in 1979, 1989, and 1994 respectively, displaying thousands of terra-cotta warriors, horses and chariots, all arranged in battle formations.

    Vault12 1, built with earth and timber, measures 210 meters long, 60 meters wide and 4.6 to 6.5 meters high. In this area of 12, 600 square meters, six thousand life-sized warriors and horses of terra-cotta were found in rectangular battle formation. The troops were of a fairly uniform height of 1.8 meters. They wear helmets and armor and carry real bows and arrows, swords, lances, javelins14 and crossbows in their hands. Each chariot, made of wood, is drawn15 by a team of four horses, 1. 5 meters in height. Three rows of infantrymen make up the vanguard of the formation, and these are followed by the main body of the army, 38 rows of troops. There are also flank columns and rearguards. The array breathes the power of Qin Shi Huang‘s army.

    Vault 2 is approximately one half vault I in size, housing nearly a thousand pottery warriors. Compared with Vault 1, these warriors are of a larger variety and arranged in more complex battle array. Unlike Vault 1, the war chariots and infantrymen are arranged separately in four square formations which are linked to one another in a polygon16. Again, however, the warriors carry real weapons. The projecting part of the polygon consists of archers17, either standing or kneeling, with crossbows or handbows and quivers and so appears to be the vanguard of the phalanx.

    The archers are followed by a unit of cavalrymen to the left and one of chariots to the right, forming the two wings of the phalanx. Infantrymen and war chariots bring up the rear. Each chariot drawn by four horses has1l driver and two assistants, one on either side. The charioteers are armored and carry spears, swords and crossbows, Indicating that they could engage in long-range battles, short-range fighting and hand-to-hand combat. All the cavalrymen carry crossbows, a sign that shooting on horseback was a common practice in the army at that time.

    From among the chariots a robust18 and unusually tall figure at 1. 95 meters has been unearthed. His armor is interlinked and overlapped19 with finer metal pieces than that of the common soldiers, and he is believed to be a high-ranking commander of the 1egion.

    Vault 3 is a modest building more resembling a gallery. It has 69 pottery warriors with defensive20 weapons and a wooden chariot pulled by four magnificent horses. The structure of the gallery and the line-up of the soldiers suggest that this was likely the headquarters of the troops of Vault 1 and 2.

    However, the commander is missing. Many archaeologists believe that since the underground army represents the emperor‘s garrison21 under his direct command, no marshal was necessary.

    Altogether ten thousand pieces of actual weaponry have been unearthed from the three vaults, including arrow-heads, swords, spears and halberds. Two long-handled swords dug out recently are still sharp and gleaming despite their burial for more than two thousand years. Some bronze arrow-heads from Vault 2 are 41 cm in length and 100 grams in weight. They are the biggest bronze weapons excavated8 in China. Important to the study of Qin technology was the discovery of bronze arrow-heads and swords treated with a preservative22 that has prevented erosion for 22 centuries. Chemical analysis revealed the sword to have been cast of an alloy23 of copper24, tin and various other elements, including nickel, magnesium25, and cobalt. The arrow-heads which contain 7.71 percent lead are considered by archaeologists to be the world‘s most poisonous.

    Experts expect future discoveries to unearth3 even more amazing art treasures. But they warn that it may require the efforts of one or two generations to recover the entire tomb complex of Emperor Qin Shi Huang.

    The three vaults are well preserved in three modern constructions, each with an arched dome26 and a corridor along the side of the vault so that visitors may overlook the restored figures of warriors, horses and chariots in their original formations. Vault 2 is equipped with devices for regulating temperature, lighting27 and air humidity.

     11级    双语 


    1 warriors ['wɒrɪəz] 3116036b00d464eee673b3a18dfe1155   第7级
    武士,勇士,战士( warrior的名词复数 )
    • I like reading the stories ofancient warriors. 我喜欢读有关古代武士的故事。
    • The warriors speared the man to death. 武士们把那个男子戳死了。
    2 archaeological [ˌɑ:kɪə'lɒdʒɪkl] XNoye   第9级
    • That was a great archaeological find. 那是一次了不起的考古发现。
    • The discovery is of great archaeological value. 这一发现有很大的考古学意义。
    3 unearth [ʌnˈɜ:θ] 2kLwg   第8级
    • Most of the unearth relics remain intact. 大多数出土文物仍保持完整无损。
    • More human remains have been unearthed in the north. 北部又挖掘出了更多的人体遗骸。
    4 unearthed [ʌn'əθɪd] e4d49b43cc52eefcadbac6d2e94bb832   第8级
    • Many unearthed cultural relics are set forth in the exhibition hall. 展览馆里陈列着许多出土文物。
    • Some utensils were in a state of decay when they were unearthed. 有些器皿在出土时已经残破。
    5 pottery [ˈpɒtəri] OPFxi   第7级
    • My sister likes to learn art pottery in her spare time. 我妹妹喜欢在空余时间学习陶艺。
    • The pottery was left to bake in the hot sun. 陶器放在外面让炎热的太阳烘晒焙干。
    6 exterior [ɪkˈstɪəriə(r)] LlYyr   第7级
    • The seed has a hard exterior covering. 这种子外壳很硬。
    • We are painting the exterior wall of the house. 我们正在给房子的外墙涂漆。
    7 remains [rɪˈmeɪnz] 1kMzTy   第7级
    • He ate the remains of food hungrily. 他狼吞虎咽地吃剩余的食物。
    • The remains of the meal were fed to the dog. 残羹剩饭喂狗了。
    8 excavated [ˈekskəˌveɪtid] 3cafdb6f7c26ffe41daf7aa353505858   第8级
    v.挖掘( excavate的过去式和过去分词 );开凿;挖出;发掘
    • The site has been excavated by archaeologists. 这个遗址已被考古学家发掘出来。
    • The archaeologists excavated an ancient fortress. 考古学家们发掘出一个古堡。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    9 mound [maʊnd] unCzhy   第9级
    • The explorers climbed a mound to survey the land around them. 勘探者爬上土丘去勘测周围的土地。
    • The mound can be used as our screen. 这个土丘可做我们的掩蔽物。
    10 standing [ˈstændɪŋ] 2hCzgo   第8级
    • After the earthquake only a few houses were left standing. 地震过后只有几幢房屋还立着。
    • They're standing out against any change in the law. 他们坚决反对对法律做任何修改。
    11 excavation [ˌekskəˈveɪʃn] RiKzY   第10级
    • The bad weather has hung up the work of excavation. 天气不好耽误了挖掘工作。
    • The excavation exposed some ancient ruins. 这次挖掘暴露出一些古遗迹。
    12 vault [vɔ:lt] 3K3zW   第8级
    • The vault of this cathedral is very high. 这座天主教堂的拱顶非常高。
    • The old patrician was buried in the family vault. 这位老贵族埋在家族的墓地里。
    13 vaults [vɔ:lts] fe73e05e3f986ae1bbd4c517620ea8e6   第8级
    n.拱顶( vault的名词复数 );地下室;撑物跳高;墓穴
    • It was deposited in the vaults of a bank. 它存在一家银行的保险库里。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    • They think of viruses that infect an organization from the outside.They envision hackers breaking into their information vaults. 他们考虑来自外部的感染公司的病毒,他们设想黑客侵入到信息宝库中。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    14 javelins [ˈdʒævəlinz] c3f00f21cbb6e90fab4d759b88ca8d05   第11级
    n.标枪( javelin的名词复数 )
    • The heavy infantry blocks moved forward, throwing javelins just before the clash. 在正面交火之前,庞大的兵团会整体向前移动并投掷标枪。 来自互联网
    • Elite mercenaries, originally from Aragon, armed with javelins and light armour. 加泰罗尼亚标枪兵为精锐雇佣部队,最初来自阿拉贡,装备标枪和轻甲。 来自互联网
    15 drawn [drɔ:n] MuXzIi   第11级
    • All the characters in the story are drawn from life. 故事中的所有人物都取材于生活。
    • Her gaze was drawn irresistibly to the scene outside. 她的目光禁不住被外面的风景所吸引。
    16 polygon [ˈpɒlɪgən] 0iFy9   第12级
    • A polygon with ten sides is a decagon. 十条边的形状叫十边形。
    • He conceived the first proof that the 17-sided polygon is constructible. 他构思了17边形可以作图的第一个证明。
    17 archers ['ɑ:tʃəz] 79516825059e33df150af52884504ced   第11级
    n.弓箭手,射箭运动员( archer的名词复数 )
    • The next evening old Mr. Sillerton Jackson came to dine with the Archers. 第二天晚上,西勒顿?杰克逊老先生来和阿切尔家人一起吃饭。 来自辞典例句
    • Week of Archer: Double growth for Archers and Marksmen. 射手周:弓箭手与弩手(人类)产量加倍。 来自互联网
    18 robust [rəʊˈbʌst] FXvx7   第7级
    • She is too tall and robust. 她个子太高,身体太壮。
    • China wants to keep growth robust to reduce poverty and avoid job losses, AP commented. 美联社评论道,中国希望保持经济强势增长,以减少贫困和失业状况。
    19 overlapped [əʊvə'læpt] f19155784c00c0c252a8b4dba353c5b8   第7级
    _adj.重叠的v.部分重叠( overlap的过去式和过去分词 );(物体)部份重叠;交叠;(时间上)部份重叠
    • His visit and mine overlapped. 他的访问期与我的访问期有几天重叠。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
    • Our visits to the town overlapped. 我们彼此都恰巧到那小城观光。 来自辞典例句
    20 defensive [dɪˈfensɪv] buszxy   第9级
    • Their questions about the money put her on the defensive. 他们问到钱的问题,使她警觉起来。
    • The Government hastily organized defensive measures against the raids. 政府急忙布置了防卫措施抵御空袭。
    21 garrison [ˈgærɪsn] uhNxT   第9级
    • The troops came to the relief of the besieged garrison. 军队来援救被围的守备军。
    • The German was moving to stiffen up the garrison in Sicily. 德军正在加强西西里守军之力量。
    22 preservative [prɪˈzɜ:vətɪv] EQFxr   第9级
    • New timber should be treated with a preservative. 新采的圆木应进行防腐处理。
    • Salt is a common food preservative. 盐是一种常用的食物防腐剂。
    23 alloy [ˈælɔɪ] fLryq   第7级
    • The company produces titanium alloy. 该公司生产钛合金。
    • Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin. 青铜是铜和锡的合金。
    24 copper [ˈkɒpə(r)] HZXyU   第7级
    • The students are asked to prove the purity of copper. 要求学生们检验铜的纯度。
    • Copper is a good medium for the conduction of heat and electricity. 铜是热和电的良导体。
    25 magnesium [mægˈni:ziəm] bRiz8   第9级
    • Magnesium is the nutrient element in plant growth. 镁是植物生长的营养要素。
    • The water contains high amounts of magnesium. 这水含有大量的镁。
    26 dome [dəʊm] 7s2xC   第7级
    • The dome was supported by white marble columns. 圆顶由白色大理石柱支撑着。
    • They formed the dome with the tree's branches. 他们用树枝搭成圆屋顶。
    27 lighting [ˈlaɪtɪŋ] CpszPL   第7级
    • The gas lamp gradually lost ground to electric lighting. 煤气灯逐渐为电灯所代替。
    • The lighting in that restaurant is soft and romantic. 那个餐馆照明柔和而且浪漫。

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