轻松背单词新浪微博 轻松背单词腾讯微博
当前位置:首页 -> 9级英语阅读 - > 随着欧洲、非洲和美洲的分裂,大西洋越来越...
添加时间:2021-03-29 10:51:29 浏览次数: 作者:未知
  • The Atlantic Ocean Is Getting Wider As Europe, Africa, And The Americas Are Pushed Apart随着欧洲、非洲和美洲的分裂,大西洋越来越宽

    Every year, the Americas are moving further away from Europe and Africa. The separation between the Atlantic-facing continents increases by 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) per year, but what was driving this has been a bit of a puzzler. The dividing line where new plates are formed is known as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge1. A ridge is usually driven by a balancing act between the lighter2 and heavier parts of tectonic plates. But this is not the case for the Atlantic ocean, which is not surrounded by dense3 sinking plates.


    In a new paper published in Nature, researchers suggest a new mechanism4 to explain this process: the region experiences an upsurge of matter from the deeper layers of our planet, which is pushing the continents apart.


    One possibility was an upwelling of material from the mantle5, the region beneath the Earth’s crust. These tend to originate at depths of 60 kilometers (37 miles) but the one driving the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is much deeper, over 10 times those depths.


    Dr Alfredo Carpineti

    To work out this mystery the team of researchers embarked6 on two research cruises deploying7 39 seismographers at the bottom of the Atlantic ocean on each side of the ridge. This is one of the few experiments to have studied the mantle below the ocean's floor in such detail. In fact, it delivers the first large-scale and high-resolution imaging of the mantle.


    “This was a memorable8 mission that took us a total of 10 weeks at sea in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. The incredible results shed new light in our understanding of how the Earth's interior is connected with plate tectonics, with observations not seen before,” lead author Dr Matthew Agius, from Università degli studi Roma Tre, said in a statement.

    “这是一次令人难忘的任务,我们在大西洋中央的海上总共花了10周时间。该研究的主要作者、Università degli studi Roma Tre的马修·阿吉斯博士在一份声明中说:“这一令人难以置信的结果为我们对地球内部如何与板块构造联系的理解提供了新的线索。”

    In particular, they studied how structures changed between depths of 410 and 660 kilometers (255 and 410 miles). They also observed abrupt9 changes to mineral phases, which suggests the presence of an upwelling.


    The findings suggest that the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is an active player in the plate tectonics of the region. Since, plate tectonics influence earthquakes and volcanoes, as well as sea levels, understanding their role helps us improve our planetary and climate models, leading to better warning systems for natural disasters.


    “This was completely unexpected. It has broad implications for our understanding of Earth's evolution and habitability,” co-author Dr Kate Rychert from the University of Southampton, added. “It also demonstrates how crucial it is to gather new data from the oceans. There is so much more to explore!”


     9级    双语 
     单词标签: ridge  lighter  dense  mechanism  mantle  embarked  deploying  memorable  abrupt 


    1 ridge [rɪdʒ] KDvyh   第7级
    • We clambered up the hillside to the ridge above. 我们沿着山坡费力地爬上了山脊。
    • The infantry were advancing to attack the ridge. 步兵部队正在向前挺进攻打山脊。
    2 lighter [ˈlaɪtə(r)] 5pPzPR   第8级
    • The portrait was touched up so as to make it lighter. 这张画经过润色,色调明朗了一些。
    • The lighter works off the car battery. 引燃器利用汽车蓄电池打火。
    3 dense [dens] aONzX   第7级
    • The general ambushed his troops in the dense woods. 将军把部队埋伏在浓密的树林里。
    • The path was completely covered by the dense foliage. 小路被树叶厚厚地盖了一层。
    4 mechanism [ˈmekənɪzəm] zCWxr   第7级
    • The bones and muscles are parts of the mechanism of the body. 骨骼和肌肉是人体的组成部件。
    • The mechanism of the machine is very complicated. 这台机器的结构是非常复杂的。
    5 mantle [ˈmæntl] Y7tzs   第9级
    • The earth had donned her mantle of brightest green. 大地披上了苍翠欲滴的绿色斗篷。
    • The mountain was covered with a mantle of snow. 山上覆盖着一层雪。
    6 embarked [imˈbɑ:kt] e63154942be4f2a5c3c51f6b865db3de   第7级
    乘船( embark的过去式和过去分词 ); 装载; 从事
    • We stood on the pier and watched as they embarked. 我们站在突码头上目送他们登船。
    • She embarked on a discourse about the town's origins. 她开始讲本市的起源。
    7 deploying [diˈplɔiŋ] 79c9e662a7f3c3d49ecc43f559de9424   第8级
    (尤指军事行动)使展开( deploy的现在分词 ); 施展; 部署; 有效地利用
    • Provides support for developing and deploying distributed, component-based applications. 为开发和部署基于组件的分布式应用程序提供支持。
    • Advertisement, publishing, repair, and install-on-demand are all available when deploying your application. 在部署应用程序时提供公布、发布、修复和即需即装功能。
    8 memorable [ˈmemərəbl] K2XyQ   第8级
    • This was indeed the most memorable day of my life. 这的确是我一生中最值得怀念的日子。
    • The veteran soldier has fought many memorable battles. 这个老兵参加过许多难忘的战斗。
    9 abrupt [əˈbrʌpt] 2fdyh   第7级
    • The river takes an abrupt bend to the west. 这河突然向西转弯。
    • His abrupt reply hurt our feelings. 他粗鲁的回答伤了我们的感情。

    文章评论 共有评论 0查看全部