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添加时间:2018-08-09 08:53:13 浏览次数: 作者:未知
  • 社会科学家向来知道,已婚人士往往更幸福,但对于这是因为婚姻带来了幸福,还是说越幸福的人越可能走进婚姻,他们意见不一。美国国家经济研究局(National Bureau of Economic Research)新近发表的一篇论文,将婚前的幸福水平作为控制变量。

    A new economics paper has some old-fashioned advice for people navigating1 the stresses of life:Find a spouse2 who is also your best friend。


    Social scientists have long known that married people tend to be happier, but they debate whether that is because marriage causes happiness or simply because happier people are more likely to get married. The new paper, published by the National Bureau of Economic Research, controlled for pre-marriage happiness levels。

    社会科学家向来知道,已婚人士往往更幸福,但对于这是因为婚姻带来了幸福,还是说越幸福的人越可能走进婚姻,他们意见不一。美国国家经济研究局(National Bureau of Economic Research)新近发表的一篇论文,将婚前的幸福水平作为控制变量。

    It concluded that being married makes people happier and more satisfied with their lives than those who remain single – particularly during the most stressful periods, like midlife crises。


    Even as fewer people are marrying, the disadvantages of remaining single have broad implications. It’s important because marriage is increasingly a force behind inequality. Stable marriages are more common among educated, high-income people, and increasingly out of reach for those who are not. That divide appears to affect not just people’s income and family stability, but also their happiness and stress levels。


    A quarter of today’s young adults will have never married by 2030, which would be the highest share in modern history, according to Pew Research Center. Yet both remaining unmarried and divorcing are more common among less-educated, lower-income people. Educated, high-income people still marry at high rates and are less likely to divorce。

    皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)称,当下的年轻人中,有四分之一不会在2030年前结婚,这一比例将是现代历史上的最高水平。但在受教育较少、收入较低的人群中,未婚和离异都更普遍。受过教育的高收入人群结婚的比例依然较高,离婚的可能性也更小。

    Those whose lives are most difficult could benefit most from marriage, according to the economists4 who wrote the new paper, John Helliwell of the Vancouver School of Economics and Shawn Grover of the Canadian Department of Finance. “Marriage may be most important when there is that stress in life and when things are going wrong,” Mr. Grover said。

    这篇文章的作者是两名经济学家,分别是温哥华经济学院(Vancouver School of Economics)的约翰·赫利韦尔(John Helliwell)和加拿大财政部的肖恩·格罗弗(Shawn Grover)。他们认为,生活最困难的人从婚姻中的受益最大。“当生活中出现了压力,有了问题时,婚姻可能是最重要的,”格罗弗说。

    They analyzed5 data about well-being6 from two national surveys in the United Kingdom and the Gallup World Poll. In all but a few parts of the world, even when controlling for people’s life satisfaction before marriage, being married made them happier. This conclusion, however, did not hold true in Latin America, South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa。

    他们对英国的两项全国性调查,以及盖洛普全球民意调查(Gallup World Poll)中和幸福有关的数据进行了分析。全世界除少数几个地方外,即便将婚前的生活满意度作为控制变量,婚姻也会让人们更幸福。然而,这一结论对拉美、南亚和撒哈拉以南的非洲来说不成立。

    Intriguingly7, marital8 happiness long outlasted9 the honeymoon10 period. Though some social scientists have argued that happiness levels are innate11, so people return to their natural level of well-being after joyful or upsetting events, the researchers found that the benefits of marriage persist。


    One reason for that might be the role of friendship within marriage。Those who consider their spouse or partner to be their best friend get about twice as much life satisfaction from marriage as others, the study found。


    The effect of friendship seems to be the result of living with a romantic partner, rather than the legal status of being married, because it was as strong for people who lived together but weren’t married. Women benefit more from being married to their best friend than men do, though women are less likely to regard their spouse as their best friend。


    “What immediately intrigued12 me about the results was to rethink marriage as a whole,” Mr. Helliwell said. “Maybe what is really important is friendship, and to never forget that in the push and pull of daily life。”


    Marriage has undergone a drastic shift in the last half century. In the past, as the Nobel-winning economist3 Gary Becker described, marriage was utilitarian13: Women looked for a husband to make money and men looked for a woman to manage the household。

    过去半个世纪,婚姻经历了剧变。从前,就像获得了诺贝尔奖的经济学家加里·贝克尔(Gary Becker)所描述的那样,婚姻是功利的:女性为了找个丈夫挣钱,男性为了找个妻子持家。

    But in recent decades, the roles of men and women have become more similar. As a result, spouses14 have taken on roles as companions and confidants, particularly those who are financially stable, as the economists Betsey Stevenson and Justin Wolfers have discussed。

    但近几十年,男女的角色变得更加相似。结果,就像经济学家贝特西·史蒂文森(Betsey Stevenson)和贾斯汀·沃夫斯(Justin Wolfers)讨论的那样,配偶承担起了同伴和知己的角色,特别是那些经济状况稳定的人。

    The benefits of marital friendship are most vivid during middle age, when people tend to experience a dip in life satisfaction, largely because career and family demands apply the most stress then. Those who are married, the new paper found, have much shallower dips – even in regions where marriage does not have an overall positive effect。


     9级    双语 


    1 navigating [ˈnævɪˌgeɪtɪŋ] 7b03ffaa93948a9ae00f8802b1000da5   第9级
    v.给(船舶、飞机等)引航,导航( navigate的现在分词 );(从海上、空中等)横越;横渡;飞跃
    • These can also be very useful when navigating time-based documents, such as video and audio. 它对于和时间有关的文档非常有用,比如视频和音频文档。 来自About Face 3交互设计精髓
    • Vehicles slowed to a crawl on city roads, navigating slushy snow. 汽车在市区路上行驶缓慢,穿越泥泞的雪地。 来自互联网
    2 spouse [spaʊs] Ah6yK   第7级
    • Her spouse will come to see her on Sunday. 她的丈夫星期天要来看她。
    • What is the best way to keep your spouse happy in the marriage? 在婚姻中保持配偶幸福的最好方法是什么?
    3 economist [ɪˈkɒnəmɪst] AuhzVs   第8级
    • He cast a professional economist's eyes on the problem. 他以经济学行家的眼光审视这个问题。
    • He's an economist who thinks he knows all the answers. 他是个经济学家,自以为什么都懂。
    4 economists [ɪ'kɒnəmɪsts] 2ba0a36f92d9c37ef31cc751bca1a748   第8级
    n.经济学家,经济专家( economist的名词复数 )
    • The sudden rise in share prices has confounded economists. 股价的突然上涨使经济学家大惑不解。
    • Foreign bankers and economists cautiously welcomed the minister's initiative. 外国银行家和经济学家对部长的倡议反应谨慎。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    5 analyzed ['ænəlaɪzd] 483f1acae53789fbee273a644fdcda80   第7级
    v.分析( analyze的过去式和过去分词 );分解;解释;对…进行心理分析
    • The doctors analyzed the blood sample for anemia. 医生们分析了贫血的血样。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    • The young man did not analyze the process of his captivation and enrapturement, for love to him was a mystery and could not be analyzed. 这年轻人没有分析自己蛊惑著迷的过程,因为对他来说,爱是个不可分析的迷。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    6 well-being [wel 'bi:ɪŋ] Fe3zbn   第8级
    • He always has the well-being of the masses at heart. 他总是把群众的疾苦挂在心上。
    • My concern for their well-being was misunderstood as interference. 我关心他们的幸福,却被误解为多管闲事。
    7 intriguingly [] bad4b759a0f1d6431273da89bebb4008   第7级
    • Intriguingly, she gave to the music a developed although oddly malleable personality. 最神奇的是,她的音乐具有成熟却又很奇怪地极富可塑性。 来自互联网
    • Intriguingly, the patients brains were riddled with tangles, but not amyloid plaques. 有趣的是,患者的大脑中充满了各缠结,但并没有粉斑。 来自互联网
    8 marital [ˈmærɪtl] SBixg   第7级
    • Her son had no marital problems. 她的儿子没有婚姻问题。
    • I regret getting involved with my daughter's marital problems. 我后悔干涉我女儿的婚姻问题。
    9 outlasted [autˈlɑ:stid] 0c30f8ec77eacb5d664fb2516a1b072b   第11级
    v.比…长久,比…活得长( outlast的过去式和过去分词 )
    • I outlasted several downsizings but the last one included me. 虽然我坚持到了最后,还是逃不过被裁的命运。 来自互联网
    • This clock has outlasted several owners. 这座时钟的寿命比它的几个主人的寿命都长。 来自互联网
    10 honeymoon [ˈhʌnimu:n] ucnxc   第8级
    • While on honeymoon in Bali, she learned to scuba dive. 她在巴厘岛度蜜月时学会了带水肺潜水。
    • The happy pair are leaving for their honeymoon. 这幸福的一对就要去度蜜月了。
    11 innate [ɪˈneɪt] xbxzC   第7级
    • You obviously have an innate talent for music. 你显然有天生的音乐才能。
    • Correct ideas are not innate in the mind. 人的正确思想不是自己头脑中固有的。
    12 intrigued [ɪnˈtri:gd] 7acc2a75074482e2b408c60187e27c73   第7级
    • You've really intrigued me—tell me more! 你说的真有意思—再给我讲一些吧!
    • He was intrigued by her story. 他被她的故事迷住了。
    13 utilitarian [ˌju:tɪlɪˈteəriən] THVy9   第9级
    • On the utilitarian side American education has outstridden the rest of the world. 在实用方面美国教育已超越世界各国。
    • A good cloth coat is more utilitarian than a fur one. 一件优质的布外衣要比一件毛皮外衣更有用。
    14 spouses [spauziz] 3fbe4097e124d44af1bc18e63e898b65   第7级
    n.配偶,夫或妻( spouse的名词复数 )
    • Jobs are available for spouses on campus and in the community. 校园里和社区里有配偶可做的工作。 来自辞典例句
    • An astonishing number of spouses-most particularly in the upper-income brackets-have no close notion of their husbands'paychecks. 相当大一部分妇女——特别在高收入阶层——并不很了解他们丈夫的薪金。 来自辞典例句

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