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旅游英语:布达拉宫 Potala Palace
添加时间:2020-03-18 20:46:09 浏览次数: 作者:未知
  • In 641, after marrying Princess Wencheng, Songtsen Gampo decided1 to build a grand palace to accommodate her and let his descendants remember the event. However, the original palace was destroyed due to a lightening strike and succeeding warfare2 during Landama‘s reign3. In seventeenth century under the reign of the Fifth Dalai Lama, Potala was rebuilt. The Thirteenth Dalai Lama expanded it to today‘s scale. The monastery-like palace, reclining against and capping Red Hill, was the religious and political center of old Tibet and the winter palace of Dalai Lamas. The palace is more than 117 meters (384 feet) in height and 360 (1180 feet) in width, occupying a building space of 90 thousand square meters. Potala is composed of White Palace and Red Palace. The former is for secular4 use while the later is for religious.

    旅游英语:布达拉宫 Potala Palace

    The White Palace consists of offices, dormitories, a Buddhist5 official seminary and a printing house. From the east entrance of the palace, painted with images of Four Heavenly Kings, a broad corridor upwards6 leads to Deyang Shar courtyard, which used to be where Dalai Lamas watched operas. Around the large and open courtyard, there used to be a seminary and dormitories. West of the courtyard is the White Palace. There are three ladder stairs reaching inside of it, however, the central one was reserved for only Dalai Lamas and central government magistrates7 dispatched to Tibet. In the first hallway, there are huge murals describing the construction of Potala Palace and Jokhang Temple and the procession of Princess Wencheng reaching Tibet. On the south wall, visitors will see an edict signed with the Great Fifth‘s handprint. The White Palace mainly serves as the political headquarter and Dalai Lamas‘ living quarters. The West Chamber8 of Sunshine and the East Chamber of Sunshine lie as the roof of the White Palace. They belonged to the Thirteenth Dalai Lama and the Fourteenth Dalai Lama respectively. Beneath the East Chamber of Sunshine is the largest hall in the White Palace, where Dalai Lamas ascended9 throne and ruled Tibet.

    The Red Palace was constructed after the death of the Fifth Dalai Lama. The center of the complicated Red Palace is the Great West Hall, which records the Great Fifth Dalai Lama‘s life by its fine murals. The scene of his visit to Emperor Shunzhi in Beijing in 1652 is extraordinarily10 vivid. It also has finely carved columns and brackets. The hall has four additional chapels12. The West Chapel11 houses three gold stupas of the Fifth, Tenth and Twelfth Dalai Lamas‘. Their mummified and perfumed bodies are well kept in those stupas. Among the three, the Fifth Dalai Lama‘s stupa is the biggest, which is made of sandalwood, wrapped in gold foil and decorated with thousands of diamonds, pearls, agates13 and others gems14. The stupa, with a height of 14.86 meters (49 feet), spends more than 3,700 kilograms of gold. The North Chapel contains statues of Sakyamuni, Dalai Lamas and Medicine Buddha15, and stupas of the Eighth, Ninth and Eleventh Dalai Lamas. Against the wall is Tanjur (Beijing edition), a most important Tibetan Buddhist sutra sent to the Seventh Dalai Lama by Emperor Yongzheng. In the East Chapel a two meters (6.5 feet) high statue of Tsong Khapa, the founder16 of Gelugpa which is Dalai Lama‘s lineage, is enshrined and worshipped. In addition, about 70 famous adepts18 in Tibetan Buddhism19 surround him. The South Chapel is where a silver statue of Padmasambhava and 8 bronze statues of his reincarnations are enshrined. On the floor above, there is a gallery which has a collection of 698 murals, portraying20 Buddhas21, Bodhisattvas, Dalai Lamas and great adepts and narrating22 jataka stories and significant Tibetan historic events. West of the Great West Hall locates the Thirteenth Dalai Lama‘s stupa hall. Since he was regarded as great as the Great Fifth, people started to build his stupa after his death in the fall of 1933. Taking three years, the stupa is comparable with the Great Fifth‘s stupa. It is 14 meters (46 feet) in height, coated with a ton (2200 pounds) of gold foils. In front of it is a mandala made of more than 200,000 pearls and other gems. Murals in the hall tell important events in his life, including his visit with Emperor Guangxu. The highest hall of Potala was built in 1690. It used to be the holy shrine17 of Chinese Emperors. Dalai Lamas would come here with his officials and high lamas to show their respects to the central government annually23 before.

    Dharma Cave and the Saint‘s Chapel are the only structures left which were built in seventh century. They both lie central of the Red Palace. Dharma Cave is said to be the place where King Songtsen Gampo proceeded his religious cultivation24. Inside the cave, statues of Songtsen Gampo, Princess Wencheng, Princess Tritsun and his chief ministers are enshrined. In the Saint‘s Chapel above Dharma Cave, Chenrezi, Tsong Khapa, Padmasambhava, the Fifth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Dalai Lamas are enshrined and worshipped. Visitors may find a stone with a footprint that was believed left by the infant Twelfth Dalai Lama.

     11级    双语 


    1 decided [dɪˈsaɪdɪd] lvqzZd   第7级
    • This gave them a decided advantage over their opponents. 这使他们比对手具有明显的优势。
    • There is a decided difference between British and Chinese way of greeting. 英国人和中国人打招呼的方式有很明显的区别。
    2 warfare [ˈwɔ:feə(r)] XhVwZ   第7级
    • He addressed the audience on the subject of atomic warfare. 他向听众演讲有关原子战争的问题。
    • Their struggle consists mainly in peasant guerrilla warfare. 他们的斗争主要是农民游击战。
    3 reign [reɪn] pBbzx   第7级
    • The reign of Queen Elizabeth lapped over into the seventeenth century. 伊丽莎白王朝延至17世纪。
    • The reign of Zhu Yuanzhang lasted about 31 years. 朱元璋统治了大约三十一年。
    4 secular [ˈsekjələ(r)] GZmxM   第8级
    • We live in an increasingly secular society. 我们生活在一个日益非宗教的社会。
    • Britain is a plural society in which the secular predominates. 英国是个世俗主导的多元社会。
    5 Buddhist ['bʊdɪst] USLy6   第8级
    • The old lady fell down in adoration before Buddhist images. 那老太太在佛像面前顶礼膜拜。
    • In the eye of the Buddhist, every worldly affair is vain. 在佛教徒的眼里,人世上一切事情都是空的。
    6 upwards [ˈʌpwədz] lj5wR   第8级
    • The trend of prices is still upwards. 物价的趋向是仍在上涨。
    • The smoke rose straight upwards. 烟一直向上升。
    7 magistrates [ˈmædʒistrits] bbe4eeb7cda0f8fbf52949bebe84eb3e   第8级
    地方法官,治安官( magistrate的名词复数 )
    • to come up before the magistrates 在地方法院出庭
    • He was summoned to appear before the magistrates. 他被传唤在地方法院出庭。
    8 chamber [ˈtʃeɪmbə(r)] wnky9   第7级
    • For many, the dentist's surgery remains a torture chamber. 对许多人来说,牙医的治疗室一直是间受刑室。
    • The chamber was ablaze with light. 会议厅里灯火辉煌。
    9 ascended [əˈsendid] ea3eb8c332a31fe6393293199b82c425   第7级
    v.上升,攀登( ascend的过去式和过去分词 )
    • He has ascended into heaven. 他已经升入了天堂。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    • The climbers slowly ascended the mountain. 爬山运动员慢慢地登上了这座山。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    10 extraordinarily [ɪk'strɔ:dnrəlɪ] Vlwxw   第9级
    • She is an extraordinarily beautiful girl. 她是个美丽非凡的姑娘。
    • The sea was extraordinarily calm that morning. 那天清晨,大海出奇地宁静。
    11 chapel [ˈtʃæpl] UXNzg   第9级
    • The nimble hero, skipped into a chapel that stood near. 敏捷的英雄跳进近旁的一座小教堂里。
    • She was on the peak that Sunday afternoon when she played in chapel. 那个星期天的下午,她在小教堂的演出,可以说是登峰造极。
    12 chapels [ˈtʃæpəlz] 93d40e7c6d7bdd896fdd5dbc901f41b8   第9级
    n.小教堂, (医院、监狱等的)附属礼拜堂( chapel的名词复数 );(在小教堂和附属礼拜堂举行的)礼拜仪式
    • Both castles had their own chapels too, which was incredible to see. 两个城堡都有自己的礼拜堂,非常华美。 来自互联网
    • It has an ambulatory and seven chapels. 它有一条走廊和七个小教堂。 来自互联网
    13 agates [ˈægɪts] 06db73de1665a768a003d8db2d4fe12f   第12级
    n.玛瑙( agate的名词复数 );玛瑙制(或装有玛瑙的)工具; (小孩玩的)玛瑙纹玩具弹子;5。5磅铅字
    • The colorful agates are engraved for pursuing lofty spirit. 绚丽的玛尼石,镌刻着崇高的精神追求。 来自互联网
    • Today, Earth teems with thousands of kinds of minerals, from agates to zircons. 现在,地球上到处是各种各样的矿物,从玛瑙到锆石应有尽有。 来自互联网
    14 gems [dʒemz] 74ab5c34f71372016f1770a5a0bf4419   第9级
    growth; economy; management; and customer satisfaction 增长
    • a crown studded with gems 镶有宝石的皇冠
    • The apt citations and poetic gems have adorned his speeches. 贴切的引语和珠玑般的诗句为他的演说词增添文采。
    15 Buddha [ˈbʊdə] 9x1z0O   第9级
    • Several women knelt down before the statue of Buddha and prayed. 几个妇女跪在佛像前祈祷。
    • He has kept the figure of Buddha for luck. 为了图吉利他一直保存着这尊佛像。
    16 Founder [ˈfaʊndə(r)] wigxF   第8级
    • He was extolled as the founder of their Florentine school. 他被称颂为佛罗伦萨画派的鼻祖。
    • According to the old tradition, Romulus was the founder of Rome. 按照古老的传说,罗穆卢斯是古罗马的建国者。
    17 shrine [ʃraɪn] 0yfw7   第7级
    • The shrine was an object of pilgrimage. 这处圣地是人们朝圣的目的地。
    • They bowed down before the shrine. 他们在神龛前鞠躬示敬。
    18 adepts [əˈdepts] e503dc26bc70ae9b352cb08d1b95942f   第9级
    n.专家,能手( adept的名词复数 )
    • And, of course, all the dark side adepts will choose that faction. 开发商没有提供有关强盗阵营的特色的内容,但我估计应该是猎枪(shotgun)吧。 来自互联网
    • The adepts in Washington mean to give rather than to take. 华盛顿的老手意味着给予而不是索取。 来自互联网
    19 Buddhism [ˈbʊdɪzəm] 8SZy6   第8级
    • Buddhism was introduced into China about 67 AD. 佛教是在公元67年左右传入中国的。
    • Many people willingly converted to Buddhism. 很多人情愿皈依佛教。
    20 portraying [pɔ:ˈtreiŋ] e079474ea9239695e7dc3dd2bd0e7067   第7级
    v.画像( portray的现在分词 );描述;描绘;描画
    • The artist has succeeded in portraying my father to the life. 那位画家把我的父亲画得惟妙惟肖。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    • Ding Ling was good at portraying figures through careful and refined description of human psychology. 《莎菲女士的日记》是丁玲的成名作,曾引起强烈的社会反响。 来自汉英文学 - 中国现代小说
    21 Buddhas [ˈbu:dəz] 355b2d5b267add69347643fe9fd61545   第9级
    n.佛,佛陀,佛像( Buddha的名词复数 )
    • She called on spirits and Buddhas and made innumerable vows, all to no avail. 她把一切的神佛都喊到了,并且许下多少誓愿,都没有用。 来自汉英文学 - 骆驼祥子
    • Tibetans identification with the political role of Living Buddhas is declining. 藏新政权的政治舞台中活佛的政治角色处于边缘。 来自互联网
    22 narrating [ˈnærˌeɪtɪŋ] 2190dd15ba2a6eb491491ffd99c809ed   第7级
    v.故事( narrate的现在分词 )
    • She entertained them by narrating her adventures in Africa. 她讲述她在非洲的历险来使他们开心。
    • [Mike Narrating] Worm and I fall into our old rhythm like Clyde Frazier and Pearl Monroe. [迈克叙述] 虫子和我配合得象以前一样默契我们两好象是克莱德。弗瑞泽和佩尔。门罗。 来自电影对白
    23 annually [ˈænjuəli] VzYzNO   第9级
    • Many migratory birds visit this lake annually. 许多候鸟每年到这个湖上作短期逗留。
    • They celebrate their wedding anniversary annually. 他们每年庆祝一番结婚纪念日。
    24 cultivation [ˌkʌltɪˈveɪʃn] cnfzl   第8级
    • The cultivation in good taste is our main objective. 培养高雅情趣是我们的主要目标。
    • The land is not fertile enough to repay cultivation. 这块土地不够肥沃,不值得耕种。

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