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添加时间:2019-06-24 16:16:38 浏览次数: 作者:未知
  • Summertime is often filled with outdoor parties and food trucks, meaning you're spending more time standing1 up and eating. But if you want to actually enjoy your meal, researchers say you're better off finding a seat.


    A new study published in the Journal of Consumer Research finds posture2 impacts taste perception, with food tasting better when you're sitting down. Lead author Dipayan Biswas, PhD, professor of marketing3 at the University of South Florida, is an expert in cross-modal effects and looked specifically at how the vestibular sense, which is responsible for balance, posture and spatial4 orientation5, interacts with the gustatory sensory6 system, which impacts taste and flavor.


    He found that holding a standing posture for even a few minutes prompts physical stress, muting taste buds. The force of gravity pushes blood to the lower parts of the body, causing the heart to work harder to pump blood back up to the top of the body, accelerating heart rate. This activates7 the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis8 and leads to increased concentrations of the stress hormone9 cortisol. This chain reaction reduces sensory sensitivity, which impacts food and beverage10 taste evaluation11, food temperature perception and overall consumption volume.


    When people experience discomfort12, foods that normally taste good do not appear as pleasant to the palate. Biswas confirmed his hypothesis by having 350 participants rate the tastiness of a pita chip. Those who were standing gave it a less favorable rating than those who were sitting in a padded chair.


    Researchers then provided participants classic bite-sized brownies baked at a local restaurant that were tested and widely considered pleasant tasting. Those who were sitting down rated them to be most delicious. However, when the baker13 altered the recipe and made the taste unpleasant by adding an extra ? cup of salt, the results were opposite. Participants standing up didn't notice the brownies tasting saltier to that extent, and actually rated them to have a relatively14 more favorable taste perception than those who sampled them while sitting down.


    "This finding suggests that parents might be able to make unpleasant-tasting, healthy foods seem more palatable15 to reluctant children by having them eat standing up (vs. sitting down). In a similar vein16, it might be beneficial to maintain a standing posture when consuming pharmaceutical17 products that have unpleasant tastes."比斯瓦斯说:“这一研究结果表明,家长或许可以让不愿吃东西的孩子站着(而不是坐着)进食,从而让味道不好的健康食物显得更加可口一些。同样的道理,在吃味道不好的药品时保持站姿也许是有益的。”

    Biswas expanded the study by inducing additional stress. He required the participants to try fruit snacks while carrying a shopping bag, mimicking18 what happens when one tries samples at a grocery store or in a food court. Both sitting and standing participants reported the additional weight made the food item taste even worse. This highlights the underlying19 mechanism20 related to physical stress driving the effects of posture on taste evaluations21.


    In addition, the team tested posture's impact on temperature perception. Participants were provided cups of hot coffee. Those standing up reported it not being as intense as those who were sitting down. However, they drank less than those sitting, suggesting physical stress suppresses appetite. Eating while standing can also help with long-term weight loss goals. Specifically, eating while standing (vs. sitting) leads to lower amount of consumption. Moreover, a standing position leads to greater physical stress, which in turn makes the heart pump more blood.


     12级    双语 


    1 standing [ˈstændɪŋ] 2hCzgo   第8级
    • After the earthquake only a few houses were left standing. 地震过后只有几幢房屋还立着。
    • They're standing out against any change in the law. 他们坚决反对对法律做任何修改。
    2 posture [ˈpɒstʃə(r)] q1gzk   第7级
    • The government adopted an uncompromising posture on the issue of independence. 政府在独立这一问题上采取了毫不妥协的态度。
    • He tore off his coat and assumed a fighting posture. 他脱掉上衣,摆出一副打架的架势。
    3 marketing [ˈmɑ:kɪtɪŋ] Boez7e   第8级
    • They are developing marketing network. 他们正在发展销售网络。
    • He often goes marketing. 他经常去市场做生意。
    4 spatial [ˈspeɪʃl] gvcww   第7级
    • This part of brain judges the spatial relationship between objects. 大脑的这部分判断物体间的空间关系。
    • They said that time is the feeling of spatial displacement. 他们说时间是空间位移的感觉。
    5 orientation [ˌɔ:riənˈteɪʃn] IJ4xo   第7级
    • Children need some orientation when they go to school. 小孩子上学时需要适应。
    • The traveller found his orientation with the aid of a good map. 旅行者借助一幅好地图得知自己的方向。
    6 sensory [ˈsensəri] Azlwe   第9级
    • Human powers of sensory discrimination are limited. 人类感官分辨能力有限。
    • The sensory system may undergo long-term adaptation in alien environments. 感觉系统对陌生的环境可能经过长时期才能适应。
    7 activates [ˈæktiveits] 78ec2b8b23e0120508757d953f1013d1   第7级
    使活动,起动,触发( activate的第三人称单数 )
    • Activates the window and displays it in its current size and position. 激活窗口,保持当前的大小及位置不变。
    • Pulling out the alarm switch activates alarm and pushing it deactivates it. 闹钟的开和关是通过拔出和按入闹铃开关实现的。
    8 axis [ˈæksɪs] sdXyz   第7级
    • The earth's axis is the line between the North and South Poles. 地轴是南北极之间的线。
    • The axis of a circle is its diameter. 圆的轴线是其直径。
    9 hormone [ˈhɔ:məʊn] uyky3   第8级
    • Hormone implants are used as growth boosters. 激素植入物被用作生长辅助剂。
    • This hormone interacts closely with other hormones in the body. 这种荷尔蒙与体內其他荷尔蒙紧密地相互作用。
    10 beverage [ˈbevərɪdʒ] 0QgyN   第7级
    • The beverage is often colored with caramel. 这种饮料常用焦糖染色。
    • Beer is a beverage of the remotest time. 啤酒是一种最古老的饮料。
    11 evaluation [ɪˌvæljʊ'eɪʃn] onFxd   第7级
    • I attempted an honest evaluation of my own life. 我试图如实地评价我自己的一生。
    • The new scheme is still under evaluation. 新方案还在评估阶段。
    12 discomfort [dɪsˈkʌmfət] cuvxN   第8级
    • One has to bear a little discomfort while travelling. 旅行中总要忍受一点不便。
    • She turned red with discomfort when the teacher spoke. 老师讲话时她不好意思地红着脸。
    13 baker [ˈbeɪkə(r)] wyTz62   第7级
    • The baker bakes his bread in the bakery. 面包师在面包房内烤面包。
    • The baker frosted the cake with a mixture of sugar and whites of eggs. 面包师在蛋糕上撒了一层白糖和蛋清的混合料。
    14 relatively [ˈrelətɪvli] bkqzS3   第8级
    • The rabbit is a relatively recent introduction in Australia. 兔子是相对较新引入澳大利亚的物种。
    • The operation was relatively painless. 手术相对来说不痛。
    15 palatable [ˈpælətəbl] 7KNx1   第9级
    • The truth is not always very palatable. 事实真相并非尽如人意。
    • This wine is palatable and not very expensive. 这种酒味道不错,价钱也不算贵。
    16 vein [veɪn] fi9w0   第7级
    • The girl is not in the vein for singing today. 那女孩今天没有心情唱歌。
    • The doctor injects glucose into the patient's vein. 医生把葡萄糖注射入病人的静脉。
    17 pharmaceutical [ˌfɑ:məˈsu:tɪkl] f30zR   第9级
    • She has donated money to establish a pharmaceutical laboratory. 她捐款成立了一个药剂实验室。
    • We are engaged in a legal tussle with a large pharmaceutical company. 我们正同一家大制药公司闹法律纠纷。
    18 mimicking ['mɪmɪkɪŋ] ac830827d20b6bf079d24a8a6d4a02ed   第9级
    v.(尤指为了逗乐而)模仿( mimic的现在分词 );酷似
    • She's always mimicking the teachers. 她总喜欢模仿老师的言谈举止。
    • The boy made us all laugh by mimicking the teacher's voice. 这男孩模仿老师的声音,逗得我们大家都笑了。 来自辞典例句
    19 underlying [ˌʌndəˈlaɪɪŋ] 5fyz8c   第7级
    • The underlying theme of the novel is very serious. 小说隐含的主题是十分严肃的。
    • This word has its underlying meaning. 这个单词有它潜在的含义。
    20 mechanism [ˈmekənɪzəm] zCWxr   第7级
    • The bones and muscles are parts of the mechanism of the body. 骨骼和肌肉是人体的组成部件。
    • The mechanism of the machine is very complicated. 这台机器的结构是非常复杂的。
    21 evaluations [ɪvælj'ʊeɪʃnz] a116c012e4b127eb506b6098697095ab   第7级
    估价( evaluation的名词复数 ); 赋值; 估计价值; [医学]诊断
    • In fact, our moral evaluations are merely expressions of our desires. 事实上,我们的道德评价只是我们欲望的表达形式。 来自哲学部分
    • Properly speaking, however, these evaluations and insights are not within the concept of official notice. 但准确地讲,这些评估和深远见识并未包括在官方通知概念里。

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